The antibiotics have quickly killed off a large percentage of the bacteria-enough to prostate cancer videos buy peni large 30 caps online reduce the symptoms and make you feel much better mens health xbox game discount peni large 30 caps. If you quit early, though, the survivors-who were the members of the original population who were most resistant to the antibiotic-will begin to reproduce again. Soon the infection will be back, possibly worse than before, and now all of the bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic that you had been prescribed. Other activities that have contributed to the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria include the use of antibacterial cleaning products and the inappropriate use of antibiotics as a preventative measure in livestock or to treat infections that are viral instead of bacterial (viruses do not respond to antibiotics). In 2017, the World Health Organization published a list of twelve antibiotic-resistant pathogens that are considered top priority targets for the development of new antibiotics (World Health Organization 2017). Forces of Evolution 123 Founder Effects Founder effects occur when members of a population leave the main or "parent" group and form a new population that no longer interbreeds with the other members of the original group. Similar to survivors of a population bottleneck, the newly founded population often has allele frequencies that are different from the original group. Alleles that may have been relatively rare in the parent population can end up being very common due to founder effect. Likewise, recessive traits that were seldom seen in the parent population may be seen frequently in the descendants of the offshoot population. One striking example of founder effect was first noted in the Dominican Republic in the 1970s. During a several-year period, eighteen children who had been born with female genitalia and raised as girls suddenly grew penises at puberty. This culture tended to value sons over daughters, so these transitions were generally celebrated. They labeled the condition guevedoces, which translates to "penis at twelve," due to the average age at which this occurred. These children develop testes internally, but the 5-alpha reductase 2 steroid, which is necessary for development of male genitals in babies, is not produced. In absence of this male hormone, the baby develops female-looking genitalia (in humans, "female" is the default infant body form, if the full set of the necessary male hormones are not produced). At puberty, however, a different set of male hormones are produced by other fully functional genes. These hormones complete the male genital development that did not happen in infancy. Five-alpha reductase syndrome has since been observed in other small, isolated populations around the world. Founder effect is closely linked to the concept of inbreeding, which in population genetics does not necessarily mean breeding with immediate family relatives. Instead, inbreeding refers to the selection of mates exclusively from within a small, closed population-that is, from a group with limited allelic variability. This can be observed in small, physically isolated populations but also can happen when cultural practices limit mates to a small group. As with founder effect, inbreeding increases the risk of inheriting two copies of any nonfunctional (mutant) alleles. The Amish in the United States are a population that, due to their unique history and cultural practices, emerged from a small founding population and have tended to select mates from within their groups. The Old Order Amish population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, has approximately 50,000 current members, all of whom can trace their ancestry back to a group of approximately 80 individuals. This small founding population immigrated to the United States from Switzerland in the mid-1700s to escape religious persecution. Keeping to themselves, and selecting mates almost exclusively from their own communities, the Amish have become familiar with far more recessive traits than are seen in their parent population. One of the great insights that has come from the study of founder effects is that a limited gene pool carries a much Figure 4. As with genetic drift, this is a misnomer, because it refers to flowing alleles, not genes. In most cases, gene flow can be considered synonymous with migration between populations.
The process of money 70 Issues for Consideration a) How does a group deal with shortfalls or excesses in revenues? Learning Methodology In addition to mens health raspberry ketone purchase peni large 30caps online the individual study of and research into supplied references mens health yoga buy 30caps peni large otc, learning objectives will be accomplished by lectures; discussions; in-class exercises, small group discussion and participation; scholarly articles and reflective journaling. A low terrorism risk implies that terrorist individuals and groups are Forster, P. Al-Shabaab: Domestic Terrorist Recruitment and Finance Networks, Terrorism Electronic Journal, 5(1). However, actors may still exploit vulnerabilities to raise or store funds or other assets domestically, or to move funds or other assets through the jurisdiction. While laundered funds come from the proceeds of illegal activities, funds used to finance terrorism may come from both legitimate and illegitimate sources. Description Following the attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, tracing terrorist funding became a key activity in countering terrorism. Consequently, anti-money laundering responses were put in place to counter terrorist financing. To build effective strategies to deter, detect and disrupt terrorist financing the following measures are incorporated: Sanctions National/International watch lists Private sector engagement Improving international standards and regulations Improving record keeping and traceability of financial transactions Harmonisation of definitions and methods of enforcing anti-money laundering laws Learning Objectives 1) Identify the measures used by national/international agencies and organisations to counter terrorist financing. Enhance terrorist financing investigations and effective capacity for prosecutions of target designated persons and entities, and those acting on behalf or at the direction of them. Preventing the raising and moving of funds, identifying and freezing assets, and prohibiting access to funds and financial services. In addition, this block will help learners assess the individual threat factor for each type of material and understand the rationale and calculus that terrorist groups consider when employing these types of materials. Such uncertainty makes it difficult to determine the nature or origin of such a threat and complicates response efforts. Liquid sarin contained in plastic bags wrapped in newspapers were delivered by five teams. Carrying their packets of sarin and umbrellas with sharpened tips, the terrorists boarded their appointed trains. Each one dropped his package and punctured it several times with the sharpened tip of his umbrella. Five victims had cardiopulmonary or respiratory arrest with significant miosis and extremely low serum cholinesterase values. This incident underscores the potential dangers should such weapons fall into the hands of terrorist groups. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction. Allied Joint Doctrine for Comprehensive Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defence. In addition, this module discusses how chemical attacks are conceived and possible response strategies. Description Chemical threats may be divided into two broad categories: chemical weapons agents and toxic industrial chemicals. For example, toxic industrial chemicals tend to be commercially available, whereas chemical weapons are kept under heavy guard. Both, however, have the capacity to cause serious damage and occur in enormous quantities worldwide. Chemical weapons agents comprise a diverse group of highly toxic substances including nerve agents, blistering agents, choking agents, blood agents, riot control agents and incapacitating agents. Toxic industrial chemicals constitute thousands of elements available in the manufacture of commercial products. The method in which a chemical agent is released depends on several factors, including the properties of the agent, preparation of the agent, its durability in the environment, and the route of infection. Issues for Consideration a) Where would terrorists obtain the chemical material for use in an attack? In addition, this module discusses common ways to obtain biological material as well as the necessary responses, if any, to counter such threats. With evolving knowledge of microbiology, culturing techniques and means of dissemination, the threat has become more acute. Biological weapons include microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, which can infect disease and ailments amongst humans, animals, and agricultural crops.
Additionally prostate 42 psa cheap peni large 30 caps mastercard, Neanderthals have a unique and distinct cluster of physical characteristics mens health best protein powder safe peni large 30 caps. While a few aspects of Neanderthals are less clear cut and are shared among some archaic Homo sapiens, such as the types of tools they created and used, most attributes of Neanderthals, both anatomically and behaviorally, are unique to them. As mentioned previously, the geographic distribution of Neanderthals is very specific. Neanderthal fossils, thus far, have been found across a narrow latitude of western Europe, the Middle East, and western Asia. No Neanderthal fossils have ever been discovered outside of this area, including Africa. While Neanderthals lived in different ecosystems, including temperate environments, they were very well adapted to extreme cold weather and their geographic distribution includes what would have been some of the coldest habitable locations at the time of their existence. Neanderthals lived during some of the coldest times during the last Ice Age and at far northern latitudes. This means Neanderthals were living very close to the glacial edge, and not in a more temperate region of the globe, like some of their archaic Homo sapiens relatives. Their range likely expanded and contracted along with European glacial events, moving into the Middle East during glacial events when Europe became even cooler, and when the animals they hunted would have moved for the same reason. During interglacials, when Europe warmed a bit, Neanderthals and their prey would have been able to move back into Western Europe. Brain size is one of the Neanderthal features that continues to follow the same patterns as seen with other archaic Homo sapiens, namely an enlargement of the cranial capacity. The average Neanderthal brain size is around 1,500 cc, and the range for Neanderthal brains can extend to upwards of 1,700 cc. The majority of the increase in the brain occurs in the occipital region, or the back part of the brain, resulting in a skull that has a large cranial capacity with a distinctly long and low shape that is slightly wider than previous forms at far back of the skull. Modern humans have a brain size comparable to that of Neanderthals; however, our brain expansion occurred in the frontal region of the brain, not the back, as in Neanderthal brains. This difference is also the main reason why Neanderthals lack the vertical forehead that modern humans possess. They simply did not Archaic Homo 411 need an enlarged forehead, because their brain expansion occurred in the rear of their brain. Due to cranial expansion, the back of the Neanderthal skull is less angular (as compared to Homo erectus) and is more rounded, a feature similar to that of modern Homo sapiens. Another feature that continues the trend noted in previous hominins is the enlargement of the nasal region, or the nose. Neanderthal noses are large and have a wide nasal aperture, which is the opening for the nose. While the nose is only made up of two bones, the nasals, the true size of the nose can be determined by looking at other facial features, including the nasal aperture, and the angle of the nasal and maxillary, or facial bones. In Neanderthals, these indicate a large, forward-projecting nose that appears to be pulled forward away from the rest of the face. This feature is further emphasized by the backward-sloping nature of the cheekbones, or the zygomatic arches. The unique shape and size of the Neanderthal nose is often characterized by the term midfacial prognathism-a jutting out of the middle portion of the face, or nose. This is in sharp contrast to the prognathism exhibited by other hominins, who exhibited prognathism, or the jutting out, of their jaws. The teeth of the Neanderthals follow a similar pattern seen in the archaic Homo sapiens, which is an overall reduction in size, especially as compared to the extremely large teeth seen in the genus Australopithecus. However, while the teeth have continued to reduce, the jaw size does not keep pace, leaving Neanderthals with an interesting situation. Their jaw is oversized for their teeth, leaving a gap between their final molar and the end of their jaw. The projecting occipital bone present in other archaic Homo sapiens is also more prominent in Neanderthals, extending the trend found in archaics. Among Neanderthals, this projection of bone is easily identified by its bun shape on the back of the skull and is known as an occipital bun. Continuing the archaic Homo sapiens trend, Neanderthal brow ridges are prominent but somewhat smaller in size than those of Homo erectus and earlier archaic Homo sapiens. In Neanderthals, the brow ridges are also often slightly less arched than those of other archaic Homo sapiens. In addition to extending traits present in archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthals possess several distinct traits.
Details of these policies prostate cancer ke gharelu upchar in hindi order peni large 30caps with visa, including the evidence for them androgen hormone metabolism buy 30caps peni large free shipping, are addressed in the chapters of this volume. In general, the individual automobile (especially two- and three-wheeled motorized vehicles) is one of the least safe modes of transportation. The overall field of transport safety would be considerably advanced by government policies (including taxes and subsidies) that promote alternative safer and more energy-efficient forms of transportation, such as mass transport, especially rail, as well as by promoting and ensuring the safety of walking and cycling. For road traffic crashes themselves, promoting safer infrastructure is a key intervention. For example, traffic-calming infrastructure such as speed bumps, especially at dangerous intersections, is a very cost-effective method for protecting pedestrians. In similar fashion, safety-related product design, such as child-resistant containers for poisons and medicines, has played a major role in injury prevention. Safety-related product design encompasses engineering (as do infrastructure and the built environment) as well as regulation because safer products are often best promoted by mandating them in legislation. Other key injury prevention regulations include mandating the use of restraints for automobile occupants and helmets for motorcycle riders. Such strategies usually do not work well in isolation but are best combined with legislation and effective enforcement. Information and communication strategies can also be delivered in smaller group settings and individually, as with many of the violence prevention strategies. However, interventions in this field primarily target the worksite and thus are distinct from those described earlier that target the general population. Key strategies in promoting occupational safety and health include regulations such as setting appropriate limits on work hours. Given higher risks faced by those in the informal work sector, formalizing this sector, including encompassing it within appropriate and context-specific regulatory and organized labor systems, is a key measure that needs to be promoted globally. On an individual basis, better application of known safe practices and known effective personal protective equipment, such as masks and respirators to prevent inhalation of silica and other airborne toxins, is needed. However, access to these interventions can be difficult for the poor, especially in rural areas. Policies to ensure that these interventions reach everyone include financing strategies (such as targeted subsidies to poor and vulnerable groups), strengthening supply chains for water and sanitation products and services, and developing national standards on universal access. Pollution-related interventions include those addressing air pollution (household and ambient, both of which are primarily related to combustion-derived particulate matter) as well as a number of chemical contaminants, such as lead, asbestos, arsenic, and pesticides. The range of policy levers can be used for these issues: taxes and subsidies (such as targeting clean fuel subsidies to the poor); infrastructure and built environment (such as relocating industrial sources such as brick kilns); regulation and international agreements (such as banning the import, export, mining, manufacture, and sale of asbestos); and actions within the health sector (such as establishing environmental lead surveillance). Among these, awareness of the health impacts of household air pollution is relatively recent, and understanding of the true scale of the impact of other issues, such as lead, has recently been greatly enhanced. Thus, actions in the health sector have lagged the knowledge of potential benefits. Some of the interventions, although listed for one condition, have beneficial effects for other conditions. For example, promoting alternatives to private automobiles decreases both injury rates and pollutant emissions. Violence prevention strategies (such as home visiting and life and social skills training) reduce substance abuse, mental health problems, and subsequent crime and violence, and increase positive outcomes, including academic attainment and employment. A set of policies for a specific subset of pollution, climate change, is presented in table 1. Many of these policies have been widely considered and are straightforward and logical (such as promoting active transport and early warning and emergency response systems). For example, road safety involves law enforcement, ministries of transport, government agencies that regulate manufacturing, and public health agencies. Surveillance includes not only monitoring of trends for disease burden, but also surveillance for risk factors. For example, a key element for managing air pollution is monitoring of air quality. Such monitoring, which is especially important for lead control, includes such activities as examining sample surveys of blood in children and monitoring of levels from hot spots such as lead battery manufacturing and recycling sites.
T/F True Do not cut nails of a diabetic resident without approval from a physician prostate cancer 61 order 30 caps peni large mastercard. T/F True Keeping your back in good alignment while lifting and transferring is a component of good body mechanics man health peins 30caps peni large overnight delivery. T/F True Before moving a resident, the first thing you should do is explain to them what you are about to do. T/F False When transferring a resident, you should always have the resident hold on to you for security. T/F False While ambulating a resident, if the resident begins to fall, you should make every attempt to catch the resident to prevent falling. T/F False the direct care staff member should always tie knots tightly and securely in order to prevent the resident from escaping. T/F False the resident should be left alone and not interrupted until he or she calms down enough so the restraints can be removed. T/F False It is okay to give a resident a medication so he or she falls asleep instead of wandering at night. Electronic Access the 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook may be accessed from the Rural Health Research Gateway website at. Each of the 36 individual data tables are available in an Excel file that can be accessed through the Rural Health Research Gateway website at. The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Page iii the 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Table of Contents Highlights. Death rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases among persons 20 years of age and older by sex and urbanization level: United States, 2008-2010. Dental visit within the past year among persons 18-64 years of age by region and urbanization level: United states, 2010-2011. Metropolitan areas included in large central and large fringe metropolitan urbanization categories by region, 2010. Death rates for all causes among persons 25-64 years of age by sex, region, and urbanization level: United States, 2008-2010. Page xii the 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook the 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Highlights In 2001, the U. Additional information on the methodology and data sources can be found in the Technical Notes and Appendix I. To examine regional variation in health patterns by urbanization level, this chartbook also includes data tables and charts that display data for each of the four geographic regions of the U. Age groups examined vary by outcome measure; most estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population (see Technical Notes). Some measures are presented by family income expressed as a percent of the Federal poverty level. Use of a multi-level system permits description of urbanization in a more continuous fashion than the dichotomous metropolitan-nonmetropolitan classification. Use of a county-based system ensures availability of a wide variety of health data. Throughout this chartbook we refer to this scale as both the level of urbanization and rurality. Urban-Rural Population Communities at different urbanization levels differ in their demographic, environmental, economic, and social characteristics. These characteristics influence the magnitude and types of health problems communities face. In addition, more urban counties tend to have a greater supply of health care providers per capita and residents of more rural counties often live farther from health care resources. The number and characteristics of counties at different urbanization levels varied by region. In the Northeast over one-half of all counties were in metro areas compared with only one in four in the Midwest.
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Larger-scale protein structures can be visibly seen as physical features of an organism mens health elevate gf purchase 30caps peni large free shipping. Making proteins androgen hormone in men buy peni large 30caps amex, also known as protein synthesis, can be broken down into two main steps referred to as transcription and translation. Uracil is complementary to (or can pair with) adenine (A), while cytosine (C) and guanine (G) continue to be Molecular Biology and Genetics 75 complementary to each other. Exons are considered "coding" while introns are considered "noncoding"-meaning the information they contain will not be needed to construct proteins. However, once transcription is finished, introns are removed in a process called splicing. Each codon corresponds to an amino acid, and this is the basis for building a protein. Lactose intolerance occurs when not enough lactase enzyme is produced and, in turn, digestive symptoms occur. To avoid this discomfort, individuals may take lactase supplements, drink lactose-free milk, or avoid milk products altogether. The growing protein then folds into the lactase enzyme, which can break down lactose. However, some humans have the ability to digest lactose into adulthood (also known as "lactase persistence"). Lactase persistence mutations are common in populations with a long history of pastoral farming, such as northern European and North African populations. It is believed that lactase persistence evolved because the ability to digest milk was nutritionally beneficial. After several years of experiments, Mendel presented his work to a local scientific community in 1865 and published his findings the following year. Although his meticulous effort was notable, the importance of his work was not recognized for another 35 years. One reason for this delay in recognition is that his findings did not agree with the predominant scientific viewpoints on inheritance at the time. For example, it was believed that parental physical traits "blended" together and offspring inherited an intermediate form of that trait. He explained this occurrence by introducing the concept of "dominant" and "recessive" traits. Mendel established a few fundamental laws of inheritance, and this section reviews some of these concepts. Moreover, the study of traits and diseases that are controlled by a single gene is commonly referred to as Mendelian genetics. A genotype consists of two gene copies, wherein one copy was inherited from each parent. In other words, although alleles code for the same trait, different phenotypes can be produced depending on which two alleles. Flower color is therefore dependent upon which two color alleles are present in a genotype. A Punnett square is a diagram that can help visualize Mendelian inheritance patterns. For instance, when parents of known genotypes mate, a Punnett square can help predict the ratio of Mendelian genotypes and phenotypes that their offspring would possess. Therefore, a pea plant that is heterozygous for flower color has one purple allele and one white allele. When an organism is homozygous for a specific trait, it means their genotype consists of two copies of the same allele. This is because the purple color allele (B) is dominant to the white color allele (b), and therefore it only needs one copy of that allele to phenotypically express purple flowers. Because the white flower allele is recessive, a pea plant must be homozygous for the recessive allele in order to have a white color phenotype (bb).
Accurate identity matching: Whether aggregated in a repository or linked "just in time androgen hormone of pregnancy buy generic peni large 30 caps," electronic health information from disparate sources must be accurately matched to man health in hindi buy peni large 30 caps low price prevent information fragmentation and erroneous consolidation. As a learning health system evolves, more than individual/patient-specific information from health records will be matched and linked, including provider identities, system identities, device identities and others to support public health and clinical research. Achieving nationwide interoperability will take a strategic and focused effort by the private sector in collaboration with federal, state, tribal and local governments. Understanding and defining the business and technical requirements of a learning health system helps identify key decisions, actions and actors that must be put into motion, as well as dependencies and relationships that have to be accounted for in the sequencing of activities. Basic functional and business requirements to enable a learning health system are listed below and organized by building block. Throughout the Roadmap, each requirement has a description of high level historical context, current state, desired future state and critical actions across three-, six- and ten-year timeframes. The Roadmap is intended to be a living document that is guided in its evolution by all health and health care stakeholders. For this initial version of the Roadmap, the set of actions described are offered as a starting point. The reader will note there are many objectives that lack one or more critical actions on the road to a learning health system. As a draft, this Roadmap needs the input from knowledgeable, engaged stakeholders and, in particular, areas where important actions or milestones may be missing, we ask for that input, indicated by the words "stakeholder input requested. These building blocks and requirements are described in more detail in the above introduction of this document. Governance helps identify common policies, operational or business practices, and standards to support services that enable interoperability. Governance can also provide a mechanism for establishing trust across electronic health information trading partners, i. While trust can be established among specific, known groups of trading partners through local governance, data use agreements and other contractual arrangements, individuals are mobile and often seek care beyond networks of local trading partners. Thus, it is important to have mechanisms for scaling trust nationwide, which requires assurance that each data holder adheres to a minimum set of common policies, operational and/or business practices and technical standards. A governance mechanism that effectively addresses all of these issues will help advance interoperability across all the diverse entities and networks that comprise a learning health system. This will facilitate the right information getting to the right people at the right time across disparate products and organizations, in a way that can be relied upon and meaningfully used by recipients. Maintaining interoperability once established will also require ongoing coordination and collaborative decision-making about change. In general, "governance is the process by which authority is conferred on rulers, by which they make the rules and by which those rules are enforced and modified. As health information exchange was in its infancy, but growing at a fast pace, commenters were concerned 14 15 Arriving at a Common Understanding of Governance. Governance organizations that seek to establish exchange across organizational boundaries have also emerged. Despite significant overlap in the founders and members of these organizations, technical and governance policies that are adopted by each are often incompatible, as are their respective business practices and policies for establishing trust. Some networks that support health care depend upon legal data sharing and use agreements, while some rely on self-attestation or independent accreditation. And most (but not all) operate some level of technical infrastructure to identify participants in the trust community. In addition to varying policies and business practices that establish additional constraints beyond applicable law and regulation, there is also significant variation in the technical standards these organizations use to support interoperability, including specifications for content, transport and security. Organizations often have overlapping regional, state or national footprints, sometimes establishing trust communities that may compete for members. The result is a complex web of electronic health information sharing arrangements that create some degree of interoperability within specific geographic, organizational and vendor boundaries, but fail to produce seamless nationwide interoperability to support a learning health system. Moving Forward and Milestones While the various organizations with their varying governance methods (policy, operational and technical) described above play an important part in the governance landscape, there is no single process or mechanism to bring them all together in a coordinated manner or in a manner that can reconcile differences. The challenge is finding a way for health information to flow between these networks with varying policies and architectures. It is important that there be a set of "rules of the road," a multi-stakeholder process to address operational issues to support the rules of the road and a mechanism for demonstrating and identifying compliance with the rules, as well as addressing non-compliance. A coordinated governance mechanism must support a transparent and inclusive process for identifying operational issues and making decisions to support electronic health information exchange for individual and population health.
In fact prostatic utricle discount peni large 30 caps visa, there is a growing body of literature on variations in the social construction of masculinities along racial androgen hormone meaning generic peni large 30 caps with amex, ethnic, and social class dimensions (Connell, 1995; hooks, 2003; Viveros Vigoya, 2001). To date, this work has not been integrated into the literature on men and depression. In addition, regardless of race, ethnicity, or class, there are reasons to question the generalizability of findings based on depressed mood in college student samples to syndromal depression in noncollege samples. For example, norms such as emotional stoicism may make it difficult for some men to recognize sadness, grief, or depressed affect. Others, such as competitiveness, may affect the degree to which different men communicate their depression to others. Still other norms, such as remaining active and distracting oneself from problems, may actually serve a buffering function, at least in the short term. A major shortcoming of existing work is that it has examined only the relationships between masculine gender norms and self-reported symptoms of depression per se. First, it is clear that traditional masculine norms proscribe expression of emotional distress, such as symptoms of depression. No studies have looked at the relationships between masculinity and depression using structured diagnostic interviews where interviewers can probe and clarify the presence or absence of symptoms. Second, although the concept of a fully masked depression is problematic for all of the reasons considered above, it is still possible that masculinity plays a role in the way different men express symptoms of depression. In particular, the possible presence of comorbid externalizing symptoms in men who show clinically significant but subthreshold symptoms of major depression has not been explored. For example, common self-report measures of depression do not include items on substance abuse, although substance abuse can be a form of affect regulation. In addition, items on irritability and anger are typically given equal weight with other symptoms on self-report depression measures, although they might have greater diagnostic significance for men who adhere more strongly to masculine norms. A final problem with existing research is that it has focused almost exclusively on symptoms of depression as a final endpoint and not at all on the role of gender in emotional processes that may underlie or precede the development of depression and related disorders. Such work is critical for understanding the role of gender in the etiology of depressive disorders. There is ample evidence that young boys are taught salient lessons about emotion regulation and emotional expression from family members and peers. These gender-based learning processes may ultimately affect how different men respond to loss, grief, and other forms of negative affect that can precede development of an Axis I disorder, such as major depression. The Gendered Responding Framework the gendered responding framework rests on the assumption that masculinity can play a role not only in how men respond to depression as a disorder ("depression with a big D") but also in how they respond to negative affect in general, including depressed mood, grief, sadness, and so on. This framework shares certain assumptions with the response styles theory originally developed by Nolen-Hoeksema and colleagues4 (Morrow & NolenHoeksema, 1990; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). The latter was developed to account for the increased incidence of depression in women compared to men. A key assumption is that the way individuals respond to depressed mood has a strong influence on the likelihood of developing an episode of major depression and the length and severity of episodes once they begin. Consistent with the theory, nondepressed individuals who ruminate in response to depressed mood are more likely to become depressed and to have longer and more severe episodes of depression (Just & Alloy, 1997; NolenHoeksema, Morrow, & Fredrickson, 1993). In contrast, individuals who distract themselves from depressed mood are thought to have a lesser likelihood of developing an episode of depression. With regard to gender, female adults, adolescents, and children are indeed more likely than males to ruminate in response to depressed mood. Although research following from the response styles framework has increased our understanding of depression in girls and women, and to some degree boys and men, it has not led to a corresponding body of theory and research focused specifically on the latter group. First, the theory was designed to account for sex differences in the incidence and prevalence of depression and not for the variety of ways that gender can affect how different men experience, express, and respond to depression. Second, the majority of studies within the response styles framework have examined responses to depressed mood as measured by standardized self-report measures of depression. As discussed above, it is likely that masculine gender norms can make it difficult for many men to recognize and/or disclose symptoms of depression when such symptoms exist.
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