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Urine dipstick as a screening test for serum creatinine elevation in emergency department patients with severe hypertension virus movies list buy euticlavir 1000 mg on-line. A new automated system for urine analysis: a simple antibiotic resistance fda purchase 1000mg euticlavir amex, cost-effective and reliable method for distinguishing between glomerular and nonglomerular sources of haematuria. Childhood post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis as a risk factor for chronic renal disease in later life. Dipstick urinalysis screening of asymptomatic adults for urinary tract disorders, I: hematuria and proteinuria. Emergency physicians versus laboratory technicians: are the urinalysis and microscopy results comparable? Evaluation of an automated urinalysis system for testing urine chemistry, microscopy and culture. Implementation of a point-of-care satellite laboratory in the emergency department of an academic medical center: impact on test turnaround time and patient emergency department length of stay. Prevalence of hematuria among Zuni Indians with and without diabetes: the Zuni Kidney Project. Utility of dipstick urinalysis as a guide to management of adults with suspected infection or hematuria. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of electrolyte concentrations on calculations of the anion gap and the strong ion difference. A prospective observational study on the accuracy of patient self-testing of urine at an antenatal clinic. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia by measurement of kallikrein and creatinine on a random urine sample. Early risk assessment of severe preeclampsia: admission battery of symptoms and laboratory tests to predict likelihood of subsequent significant maternal morbidity. Effect of concentration and biochemical assay on the accuracy of urine dipsticks in hypertensive pregnancies. Urine protein dipstick measurements: a screen for a standard, 24hour urine collection. Indinavir crystalluria: identification of patients at increased risk of developing nephrotoxicity. Cost savings associated with changes in routine laboratory tests ordered for victims of trauma. Detection and significance of microscopic hematuria in patients with blunt renal trauma. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in suspected penetrating abdominal stab wounds using a dipstick technique. Incidence of negative hematuria in patients with acute urinary lithiasis presenting to the emergency room with flank pain. Validation of a hand-held lactate device in determination of blood lactate in critically injured patients. Myoglobinuria: evaluation of methods in the clinical diagnosis acute renal failure. Assessment of a new dipstick test in screening for microalbuminuria in patients with hypertension. Association of urinary albumin concentration with casual and ambulatory blood pressure: a similar relationship in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Urinary findings and renal function in adult Navajo Indians and associations with type 2 diabetes. Prevalence of proteinuria/microalbuminuria in an elderly urban, biethnic community. This chapter will examine the clinical utility of these tests and the effect they have on patient outcomes. These guidelines do not address studies such as these and focus only on studies that have examined measurable clinical outcomes.

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Life cycle of Trichuris trichiura 103 Symptoms the patient complains of dysentery (blood and mucus in stool together with tenesmus) bacteria use restriction enzymes to discount euticlavir 625 mg without prescription. Egg of Trichuris trichiura Treatment Mebendazole: 1 tablet twice daily for 2 days antibiotic knee spacer surgery purchase 1000mg euticlavir mastercard. The microfilariae, when taken by the arthropod intermediate host during biting, develop into filariform larvae, which are the infective stages. Wuchereria bancrofti this is a parasite of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels- causing lymphatic filariasis. The larvae invade the lymphatics, usually the lower limb, where they develop into adult worms. They remain in the pulmonary circulation during day, emerging into the peripheral circulation only during night, to coincide with the biting habit of the vector. Presence of the adult worms causes lymphatic blockage and gross lymphedema, which sometimes lead to elephantiasis. Pathogenecity and clinical features: the adult worm obstructs the flow of lymph in the lymph nodes and the lymphatic vessels draining the lower limbs and the external genitalia. The major symptoms and findings include: lymphangitis, lymphedema, fever, headache, myalgia, hydrocele and chyluria. Diagnosis Blood film examination after staining by Giemsa or Leishman stain to detect microfilaria. Endemic non-filarial elephantiasis (Podoconiosis) Non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower limbs is common in Ethiopia. Silicon, aluminium and iron particles in the red clay soil are absorbed through skin abrasions in bare footed persons. Endemic foci are found in Bebeka, Gojeb valley, Dedessa valley, Agaro, Metekel, and in Northwestern Ethiopia around Gondar. Pathogenecity and clinical manifestations: the disease, onchocerciasis or river blindness includes: · Skin fibrous nodules (onchocercomata) enclosing female worms. In advanced cases, the skin becomes thickened and wrinkled, showing lizard or leopard skin appearance. Diagnosis Superficial biopsy (skin snip) is taken from the skin using sharp razor blade. The specimen is allowed to stand for 30 minutes in saline before it is examined microscopically for microfilariae. Because it kills microfilariae but not adult worms, retreatment is necessary over a period of years. Prevention · · Vector control Mass treatment 109 · · · Establishment of villages away from Simulium breeding places. The insect vectors include mango flies of Chrysops - Chrysops silacea, Chrysops dimidiata. The abundant rubber plantations provide a favorable environment for the vector to transmit the disease. Morphology Adult male worms: 30-34 mm in length Adult female worms: 40-70 mm in length Pathogenesis the microfilaria have a sheath. There is fever, pain, pruritus, urticaria, allergic reactions, retinopathy, glomerulonephritis, meningo-encephalitis etc. The infection is endemic to Asia and Africa: India, Nile Valley, central, western and equatorial Africa, lowlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Their body cavity is almost fully occupied by a uterus greatly distended with rhabditiform larvae (250-750 m in length). A digestive tube and cuticular annulations distinguish the larvae from microfilariae. The larvae are released in the stomach, penetrate the intestinal wall and find their way to the subcutaneous tissue. The male worms then die in the tissue and the female worms move down to the limbs within 10 months. In 111 about 1 year, female worms in the subcutaneous tissue provoke the formation of a burning blister in the skin of the legs.

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In 1996 to bacteria make gold generic 625 mg euticlavir with visa 1997 treatment for recurrent uti in dogs order euticlavir 625mg on line, the largest epidemic in history swept across the belt, causing over 250 000 cases, an estimated 25 000 deaths, and disability in 50 000 people. Large epidemics tend to recur in the meningitis belt every 7­12 years, against a backdrop of smaller annual epidemics (100). The early meningococcal vaccines, developed between 1900 and the 1940s, were effective enough to elicit an immune response but not pure enough to avoid untoward reactions in vaccine recipients. Efforts to develop a vaccine need to take into account the distribution of different strains of meningococci. Five groups ­ A, B, C, Y, and W-135 ­ are associated with most cases of severe disease and epidemics. Broadly speaking, groups A, B, and C, account for most cases and epidemics in the world. Group A is predominant in Africa and Asia and is the main cause of epidemic meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa; group B occurs in many regions; group C occurs mainly in North America, Europe, and Australia; and group Y is gaining importance in the United States. Group W-135 has only recently emerged as a cause of epidemics in Africa and the Middle East. By the mid-1970s the first modern "polysaccharide" vaccines were introduced, and were based on the carbohydrate capsule (polysaccharides) surrounding the organism. Between the late 1970s and the mid-1980s, several polysaccharide vaccines became available, targeting one (A, C, Y, or W-135), two (A and C), or four (A, C, Y, and W-135) meningococcal groups. However, as with the polysaccharide vaccines developed against Hib and the pneumococcus, they gave little or no protection to children under two years of age. Other age groups were protected but for only three to five years, and the vaccines conferred no "herd" or community immunity, whereby even the unvaccinated are protected. Despite their shortcomings, polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines were used, with mixed results, either for routine preventive vaccination (in China and Egypt), or for selected high-risk groups during epidemics. Since 1999, four new-generation conjugate vaccines (see Chapter 2) have appeared, targeting one (group C) or four groups (A, C, Y, W-135). At least five more candidate conjugate vaccines are in the late stages of development. To date, there are no licensed vaccines against the group B meningococcus, but several vaccine manufacturers have products that are being evaluated clinically. For example, group B vaccines that have been custom-made against specific epidemic strains have been successfully used to control specific outbreaks in Brazil, Chile, Cuba, France, New Zealand, and Norway. This is not the case in developing countries, where high endemic disease rates still occur, with the additional problem of periodic major epidemics. This situation is very likely to improve ­ at least for the African meningitis belt, where a new, inexpensive group A conjugate vaccine is in the late stages of development and is expected to be ready for use in 2010 (see Box 21). All the ingredients were in place: the conviction that it had to be done and could be done; the knowledge needed to prepare a meningococcal vaccine; and the international partnership to develop a vaccine. By 2010, a vaccine against group A meningococcus is expected to be available for use in a huge swathe of Africa, home to nearly half a billion people. Meningococcus A is believed to cause some 85% of meningococcal meningitis cases in Africa. A Dutch firm agreed to manufacture vaccine-grade group A polysaccharide, and an Indian vaccine manufacturer provided the carrier protein (tetanus toxoid) that would be linked (conjugated) to the polysaccharide to create a new vaccine that would induce a strong, durable immune response. Project officials hope it will be licensed and ready for use before the end of 2009. Health officials in the 25 countries that make up the African meningitis belt and that stand to benefit most from the new vaccine are optimistic: at a September 2008 meeting in Cameroon, ministers from all 25 countries pledged to start making plans to introduce the vaccine as soon as it becomes available (106). If all goes well, by 2015, nearly 300 million people will have been vaccinated in the 25 belt countries and, assuming vigorous herd immunity, more than 400 million people will be protected against death and disability from the meningococcus. A second milestone was the detailed account of the course of the disease, including its occasional involvement of the central nervous system, made in the late 18th century by Scottish physician Robert Hamilton. And the third was the discovery in the 1930s by United States pathologists that a virus was the causative agent. Historically, mumps has been generally regarded as a relatively benign, self-limiting illness affecting mainly children aged five to nine years. Most cases involve little more than a week or two of influenza-like symptoms with earache and soreness around the jaws. For one thing, in pre-vaccine days, the disease was disabling enough to be a significant cause of absenteeism of young children from school, of adolescents from higher educational institutions, and of soldiers from army duty (1). For another, complications of the disease can be severe, and on rare occasions, fatal: among the most feared complications of mumps are meningitis, encephalitis, and pancreatitis.

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Several surgical techniques have been studied up to virus x-terminator euticlavir 1000mg mastercard date first line antibiotics for acne 1000 mg euticlavir fast delivery, including mainly the abdominal approach, the laparoscopic approach and the robot-assisted laparoscopic approach. These approaches including the patient eligibility criteria, as well as their risks and benefits will be reviewed later on in this chapter. However regardless of which surgical approach is used, in order to achieve nerve sparing during radical hysterectomy specific anatomical landmarks have to be recognized intra-operatively, which have to be discussed before discussing the different approaches. During nerve sparing radical hysterectomy appreciation of the anatomy of the inferior hypogastric plexus may become challenging, requiring proficient anatomic knowledge of the cardinal ligament and that of the posterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament [11-13]. In the cardinal ligament division of the deep uterine vein reveals the pelvic splachnic nerve, while division of the posterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament reveals the bladder branch [13,14]. Once these anatomical landmarks have been identified proficient surgical skills are required for the separation of tissues to take place thus revealing the inferior hypogastric plexus. Cardinal Ligament Isolation the cardinal ligament is created between the pararectal and the paravesical spaces. From the ventral side to the dorsal the uterine artery, the superficial uterine vein, the deep uterine vein and the pelvic splachnic nerve are identified in the cardinal ligament [13]. More specifically the surgical steps of nerve sparing radical hysterectomy are as follows: Cervical Cancer: Recent Research and Review Studies Isolation and Division of the Uterine Artery and Superficial Uterine Vein Once the uterine artery and superficial uterine vein have been identified in the cardinal ligament their isolation, clamping, division and ligation should take place. Isolation and Division of the Deep Uterine Vein the deep uterine vein runs between the lower part of the cervix and the internal iliac vein. It is revealed following of the connective and adipose tissue in the deeper portion of the cardinal ligament [13]. Once the deep uterine vein has been revealed it needs to be isolated, divided and ligated. Recognition of the Pelvic Splachnic Nerve Following division the deep uterine vein, the pelvic splachnic nerve becomes apparent as a white bundle. Isolation of the Hypogastric Nerve the hypogastric nerve is recognized as a white bundle in the rectal sidewall of the pararectal space, running paraller with the rectum. Once identified its scrapping and separation from the rectal sidewall should take place. Rectovaginal Space Separations the peritoneum of the pouch of Douglas needs to be divided and the connective tissue between the vaginal wall and the rectum needs to be separated. This process allows the creation of the rectovaginal space at a level, which is deep enough to enable extirpation of an ample vaginal cuff [13]. Anterior Leaf of the Vesicouterine Ligament Separation Separation of the anterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament is made feasible following the separation of the urinary bladder down to the cranial level of the trigone of the urinary bladder. Extra care needs to be taken in order to separate both the superficial uterine vein and the uterine artery from the ureteric surface [13]. This can be achieved by the division of the ureter branch and the superior vesical vein. The ureter becomes free following division of the cervicovessical vessels, which run from the cervix to the urinary bladder in the connective tissue of the anterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament. Recognition of the Posterior Leaf of the Vesicouterine Ligament the recognition of the posterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament becomes feasible following the freeing of the ureter. Once recognized, careful separation of its connective tissue is required, which enables the appreciation of the middle vessical vein, running and draining from the urinary bladder to the deep uterine vein. Separation of the Deep Uterine Vein from the Pelvic Splachnic Nerve Once the deep uterine vein has been identified, the separation of its uterine side from the surface of the pelvic splachnic nerve should take place. This separation needs to take place in the maximum feasible proximity to the cervix. Middle Vesical Vein Isolation and Division the connection between the middle vessical vein and the deep uterine vein can be identified by stretching the cut end of the deep uterine vein. Figure 11: Diagramatic configuration of the separation of deep uterine vein from the pelvic splachnic nerve. Inferior Vesical Vein Isolation and Division the inferior vessical vein runs from the urinary bladder to the deep uterine vein and can be recognized following further separation of the posterior leaf of the vesicouterine ligament.

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The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma bacterial endospore discount euticlavir 625mg on line. Combined 5-fluorouracil and supervoltage radiation therapy of locally unresectable gastrointestinal cancer antibiotic resistance solutions initiative buy euticlavir 1000 mg cheap. Meta-analysis on the validity of pepsinogen test for gastric carcinoma, dysplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis screening. The relation of Helicobacter pylori to gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma: pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Improved regional control and survival with "low Maruyama Index" surgery in gastric cancer: autopsy findings from the Dutch D1-D2 Trial. Demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in human colon carcinomata by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. Correlation of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels and prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Clinical importance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels in gastric cancer. The prognostic value of serum and immunohistochemical tumour markers in advanced gastric cancer. Pre-operative serum levels of tissue polypeptide antigen in patients with gastric cancer. Free human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit in gonadal and nongonadal neoplasms. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels in peritoneal washings can predict peritoneal recurrence after curative resection of gastric cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels in the peritoneal cavity: useful guide to peritoneal recurrence and prognosis for gastric cancer. Establishment of assay kits for the determination of microheterogeneities of alpha-fetoprotein using lectin-affinity electrophoresis. Positive status of alpha-fetoprotein and des-gammacarboxy prothrombin: important prognostic factor for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumour-associated isoenzymes of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical significance of serum ferritin determination for hepatocellular carcinoma. Changes in serum alpha 1 antitrypsin, alpha1 acid glycoprotein and beta 2 glycoprotein I in patients with malignant hepatocellular carcinoma. Combination of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and alpha-fetoprotein as an improved diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma. The significance of 5[prime]-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes in the diagnosis of liver carcinoma. Pectasides D, Mylonakis A, Kostopoulou M, Papadopoulou M, Triantafillis D, Varthalitis J, et al. Telomerase activity in human liver tissues: comparison between chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinomas. Telomerase as a tool for the differential diagnosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Telomerase activity as a predictive marker for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. The assessment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemical staining in small hepatocellular carcinoma and its relationship to histologic characteristics and prognosis. Ki-67 expression as a prognostic marker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Predictive value of biological markers for hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with orthotopic liver transplantation. The serum tissue polypeptide antigen in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients. Serum tissue polypeptide specific antigen as a noninvasive prognostic indicator for early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection. Circulating squamous cell carcinoma antigen-lgM complexes as novel biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Fucosyltransferases: differential plasma and tissue alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis.

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She found herself having to antimicrobial resistance surveillance buy euticlavir 375 mg mastercard use a stick and was no longer able to antibiotics for acne while pregnant generic euticlavir 1000mg without a prescription manage parts of her weekly routine such as supermarket shopping. The skin soon becomes thicker with cracks and crevices that harbour germs, increasing the risk of infection. In one clinical trial, for example, overweight patients were offered a variety of weight reduction diets to treat breast-cancer-related lymphoedema, which had caused one arm to swell up. All the patients who lost weight found that their swollen arm reduced in size over and above that of the other arm. The lean muscles do their best to exert pressure when you are exercising but moving fluid within fat is like trying to squeeze a tube of toothpaste when wearing oven gloves. The closer the lean muscles are to the lymph vessels the more efficient they can be, so keeping fat tissue to a minimum is always going to help, and losing weight will be beneficial for preventing and reducing all forms of lymphoedema ­ but only in those who are overweight. Obesity and lymphoedema can therefore become a vicious circle: obesity makes swelling worse, which impairs mobility, which burns fewer calories resulting in additional weight gain. If the surgical cut is small then the surviving lymph vessels nearby take on the responsibility of maintaining lymph drainage. However, it is the treatment of cancer rather than the disease itself that causes the problem. If you have cancer in your left breast, for example, it is most likely to spread to the lymph glands in your left armpit. This can lead to lymphoedema in the arm, and the more lymph glands removed, the greater the risk. Years ago it was customary to remove most, if not all, of the lymph glands in the armpit as a curative treatment for breast cancer. Most women will now go through a selective and accurate sampling of the regional lymph glands, called the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph gland in the armpit to which cancer spreads. If the sentinel gland is free of cancer then the other glands in the armpit down the line are likely to be as well, in which case there is no need to remove them. Many of us remember the effects of super doses of radiotherapy that were used in the 1980s in an attempt to cure breast cancer. However, until cancer treatment avoids lymph gland removal or radiotherapy, the risk of developing lymphoedema will always remain. Radiotherapy has an effect like sunburn and causes inflammation of the breast and overlying skin. A man suffering from filariasis, which is also known as elephantiasis because the swollen leg resembles that of an elephant. A bacterial infection of the lymph vessels or skin can harm vulnerable lymph vessels and disrupt lymph flow, thereby leading to the condition. The disease, which is also called elephantiasis, affects people living in tropical and sub-tropical climates, and although it is not a life-threatening infection it can cause lasting damage to the lymph system resulting in swelling of the leg or genitalia. The resulting blockage in blood flow causes a sudden rise of pressure in the affected veins so forcing extra fluid out from the blood stream and into the tissues of the leg. Unless the lymph system can cope with this extra fluid then it will lead to acute swelling. When this occurs, it is almost certainly, in part, due to additional damage to the lymph drainage from the thrombosis. Pressure builds within the varicose veins when you are sitting or standing, forcing fluid into the tissues ­ a good deal more fluid than would be expected from 38 What Causes Lymphoedema? The main way to give respite to the affected veins is elevation, which collapses the veins and lowers the pressure within them. If you then lie down and raise your foot above heart level, the veins collapse, meaning that much less fluid is released from the veins into the tissues. Surgery for varicose veins will often reduce the swelling but if it does not then the cause is probably lymphoedema.

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Phased Approach - the plan accounts for three likely phases of vaccine supply and demand zenflox antibiotic generic 1000mg euticlavir mastercard. State Leadership - A "whole-of-government" approach is being taken antimicrobial nasal spray discount euticlavir 625mg, including all state departments to ensure that the vaccine is delivered equitably and that no group is unjustly left behind. Expert Guidance - State leaders have drawn on subject matter experts and though leaders to guide New Jersey through this process and will continue to do so through the vaccine rollout. Timely First-Dose Outreach and Second-Dose Reminders - Various methods to ensure that people receive the correct number of doses of vaccine and have a record to keep. Statewide Program Monitoring -Throughout the process, measures to monitor the vaccine program will be taken to ensure the program is progressing to plan and so that corrective actions can be taken when necessary. This idea is central to the development of vaccines, which have transformed human health since the time of Jenner in the late 18th Century. Smallpox has been eradicated, polio largely controlled and measles and rubella have been targeted for elimination. Acquisition of hepatitis A and B can now be prevented, and vaccination against the main viral cause of death due to infantile diarrhea and dehydration is now being disseminated. All of this and more has been accomplished through the deployment of vaccines, particularly in the last 50 years. Governments have reasons to promote vaccination: aside from humanitarian concerns, better health of a population lowers medical costs and is associated with broad economic benefits. Therefore, the vaccine industry has been growing in importance and new companies are springing up in developing countries, often in association with western manufacturers. Many governments consider vaccine production to be a precious resource to control epidemics of new types of influenza and other emerging infections. Industrialized as well as poor countries will want their people to have access to preventive measures that make life better and safer. However, many infectious diseases remain uncontrolled and vaccines for them are needed. Unfortunately, some of these diseases are complex and vaccine development will not be easy. However, new techniques and strategies of vaccine development are being constantly developed and those tools, such as molecular, systems and structural biology are likely to allow progress against the difficult targets. This book seeks to explain to non-specialists what vaccines do, how they are developed, how they are given and what results have been obtained when they are routinely used. It is a dramatic and impressive story, but not well understood by the general public. A book about vaccines for non-scientists is particularly important for developed countries like the United States, in which many diseases have been controlled and therefore their seriousness underestimated when decisions about vaccination are made. If eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, then constant protection by vaccination is the price of good health. The word "vaccine" originates from the Latin term Variolae vaccinae (cow pox) which Edward Jenner demonstrated in 1798 could prevent smallpox in humans. Today the term vaccine applies to all biological preparations, produced from living microorganisms, that enhance immunity against disease and either prevent (prophylactic vaccines) or, in some cases, treat (therapeutic vaccines) disease. Vaccines are administered in liquid form, either by injection, by oral, or by intranasal routes. Vaccines are composed of either the entire disease-causing micromicroorganism or some of its components. They may be constructed in several ways (See Figure 1): · From living microorganisms that have been weakened, usually from cultivation under sub-optimal conditions (also called attenuation), or from genetic modification, which has the effect of reducing their ability to cause disease; · From whole microorganisms that have been inactivated by chemical, thermal, or other means; · From components of the disease-causing microorganism, such as specific proteins and polysaccharides, or nucleic acids; · From inactivated toxins of toxin-producing bacteria; · From the linkage (conjugation) of polysaccharides to proteins (this increases the effectiveness of polysaccharide vaccines in young children) (See Figure 2). Combination vaccines against different diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Hepatitis B, and polio, are commonly used in childhood immunization schedules. These vaccines incorporate both viral and bacterial vaccines and contain toxoids, purified protein sub-unit vaccine, conjugated polysaccharide vaccine, recombinant protein vaccine, and inactivated viral vaccine respectively (See Figure 3). Polio and influenza vaccines each protect against three types of virus, and some bacterial vaccines like pneumococcal vaccine protect against up to 23 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. A full list of vaccines according to their type can be seen in Table 4, Section 1.


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  • https://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/8/4/794.full.pdf
  • https://www.medsci.org/v16p0450.pdf
  • https://www.medicine.wisc.edu/sites/default/files/antifungal_agents_spectrum_nett_andes.pdf
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