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Inflamaciуn crуnica benigna de la mucosa vulvar de etiologнa desconocida Afecta a mujeres de 30-80 aсos unifour pain treatment center statesville nc purchase 10 mg maxalt visa, especialmente en la perimenopausia Aparece como lesiones eritematosas brillantes bien definidas pain center treatment for fibromyalgia maxalt 10mg discount, algunas con infiltrado petequial. La clнnica mбs tнpica es el prurito, aunque tambiйn puede presentarse como vulvodinia, quemazуn, leucorrea, disuria o dispareunia. Existen varias hipуtesis: fricciуn, calor, irritaciуn local, infecciones crуnicas, eventos autoinmunes e incluso hipersensibilidad retardada o anomalнas venosas. El virus se adquiere vнa sexual, pasando a infectar a los queratinocitos de la capa basal. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Utah School of Medicine Salt Lake City, Utah Degrees of Pain more severe disease What is Sensitive Skin? Sensitive Skin Cosmetic Toiletries 1994;109:43 Relative Sensitivity of Vulvar Skin · Transepidermal water loss is higher on the vulva than elsewhere Elsner, Maibach. Acta Derm Venereol 1990;70:141-4 · Vulvar friction coefficient is greater, making the vulva more susceptible to unavoidable mechanical damage Elsner, Maibach. Dermatologica 1990;181:8891 · Hydration, occlusion, and tissue permeability heighten vulvar susceptibility to topical irritants Ferage. Menopausal changes Causes for Vulvar Discomfort Normal skin response Laceration Abrasion Blister Burn Spongiosis Skin disease Lichen Sclerosus Hailey Hailey Pagets Lichen Planus Behcets Vulvar Crohns How is Vulvar Disease Diagnosed? Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis, as compared to psoriasis, skin prevents induction of innate immune response genes. Langerhans cells-blue arrows Spongiotic Dermatitis (eczema, atopic, irritant, allergic dermatitis) 1. Fu, Pathology of the Uterine Cervix, Vagina and Vulva Saunders 2002:281) Contact Dermatitis · Affects 40% of adults continuously · All adults will have contact dermatitis at some time · Vulva is at special risk (fragile, increased trans epidermal water loss) · Irritants burn and have an all or none effect · Allergy itches and has a graduated effect · Results in flaking skin, even in the vulvovaginal area · Vulvar skin is predisposed to contact dermatitis Irritant Dermatitis · Irritants cause immediate or delayed burning · Typically, there is no visible skin change · Erythema is present in severe cases · Microtrauma is different for each irritant · Most commercial creams and lotions contain irritants (blue squares) Sensitivity to one environmental stimulus is not predictive of susceptibility to any other Patch testing by a dermatologist can be helpful Nickel sensitivity? Contact Dermatitis 2005;53:93-9 Therapy for Irritant Vulvitis · Make the diagnosis (history of burning) · Avoid irritants (soap, creams, urine, etc. Louis Nobel Prize in Medicine / Physiology in 1986 Present in seminal fluid and stimulates ovulation in some animals Main role is to maintain nerves fibers and to regenerate damaged nerves May be found to have a therapeutic role in neuro-degenerative disorders Induced by prostaglandins Unfortunately causes new nerve endings to sprout if inflammation is chronic, such as in endometriosis this leads to progressively more sensitive skin in cases of chronic vulvitis Nerve proliferation with chronic Inflammation Figure from Misery, Staender. Br J Dermatol 1964;76:116 Nerve Proliferation in "Vulvar Vestibulitis" · Bohm-Starke N, Hilliges M, Falconer C, Rylander E. Neurochemical characterization of the vestibular nerves in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1999;48:270-5 Menopause and Vulvar Tissue · · · · · · · Atrophy-loss of normal thickness Rise in vulvovaginal skin surface pH Decline in metabolism Slower healing Loss of intercellular lipids Decline in immune competence Decline in barrier function · Decline in spongiotic dermatitis unless estrogen is administered What Persists after Menopause · High transepidermal water loss, poor barrier function · High friction coefficient related to high moisture content of the skin · Constant irritant, allergen, and mechanical abrasion exposure · Any dermatologic disease like lichen sclerosus Vulvar Treatment Concepts · Moisturize and avoid irritants to correct barrier compromise · Neurontin and analgesics for hypersensitive nerve reception · Anti-inflammatory steroids for intradermal inflammation Itching and Burning Summary · the vulvovaginal area is normally a high risk location · Secondary infection or a skin disorder further compromises the skin barrier · Chronicity amplifies the problem through continued release of Nerve Growth Factor Itching and Burning Summary · Consider a biopsy to be sent to Dermatopathology · Consider secondary yeast or bacterial infection · Irritant avoidance, and compound antiinflammatories, anti-infectives rather than commercial products Chronic Vulvovaginitis: Several Levels of Possible Investigation · 1. Wet Prep, Culture for Microbes ***Clinical interest generally stops here*** · · · · · · 3. Known dermatology (history and exam) Patch testing by a dermatologist Biopsy (dermatopathology) Colposcopy, contact microscopy Molecular markers, cytokines, immunology Genetic markers, alleles the Skin Physiology vs. Lichen sclerosus is characterized by intense vulvar itching and can affect men and women of all ages, but it manifests most commonly in postmenopausal women. Patients with lichen sclerosus have an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma, and they should be monitored for malignancy. Lichen planus is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder that can affect the vulva and the vagina; it peaks in incidence between ages 30 and 60. There are three clinical variants of lichen planus affecting the vulva: erosive, papulosquamous, and hypertrophic. Lichen simplex chronicus is caused by persistent itching and scratching of the vulvar skin, which results in a thickened, leathery appearance. It is thought to be an atopic disorder in many cases and may arise in normal skin as a result of psychological stress or environmental factors. Definitive diagnosis of non-neoplastic disorders depends on the histology of biopsied tissue. All three disorders are treated with topical corticosteroid ointments of varying potency. Lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are not routinely treated with surgery, which is necessary only in patients who have a malignancy or advanced scarring that causes dyspareunia or clitoral phimosis. Educational counseling teaches patients that even though these chronic disorders cannot be cured, they can be effectively managed. F amily physicians are in an ideal position to identify and treat nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva, which include lichen sclerosus,lichenplanus,andlichensimplex chronicus. LichenSclerosus lichen sclerosus is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory skin condition found most often in the anogenital region. Lichen sclerosus should be treated with a high-potency steroid ointment, such as clobetasol propionate 0.

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It discusses literatures on (a) social and collective identity; (b) class pain management treatment guidelines buy 10 mg maxalt otc, ethnic/racial alternative pain treatment center tacoma purchase 10 mg maxalt mastercard, and gender/sex inequality; (c) professions, knowledge, and science; and (d) communities, national identities, and spatial boundaries. It points to similar processes at work across a range of institutions and social locations. It also suggests paths for further developments, focusing on the relationship between social and symbolic boundaries, cultural mechanisms for the production of boundaries, difference and hybridity, and cultural membership and group classifications. It has been associated with research on cognition, social and collective identity, commensuration, census categories, cultural capital, cultural membership, racial and ethnic group positioning, hegemonic masculinity, professional jurisdictions, scientific controversies, group rights, immigration, and contentious politics, to mention only some of the most visible examples. Moreover, boundaries and its twin concept, "borders," have been the object of a number of special issues in scholarly journals, edited volumes, and conferences. This renewed interest builds on a well-established tradition since boundaries are part of the classical conceptual tool-kit of social scientists. Already in the Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Durkheim (1965) defined the realm of the sacred in contrast to that of the profane. While Marx often depicted the proletariat as the negation of the capitalist class, the Eighteenth Brumaire (Marx 1963) is 0360-0572/02/0811-0167$14. As for Weber, his analysis of ethnic and status groups continues to stand out as one of the most influential sections in Economy and Society (1978) (on the history of the concept, see Lamont 2001a and Schwartz 1981). Unsurprisingly, the multifarious recent developments around the concept of boundaries have yet to lead to synthetic efforts. Greater integration is desirable because it could facilitate the identification of theoretically illuminating similarities and differences in how boundaries are drawn across contexts and types of groups, and at the social psychological, cultural, and structural levels. Whereas empirical research almost always concerns a particular dependent variable or a subarea of sociology, focusing on boundaries themselves may generate new theoretical insights about a whole range of general social processes present across a wide variety of apparently unrelated phenomena-processes such as boundary-work, boundary crossing, boundaries shifting, and the territorialization, politicization, relocation, and institutionalization of boundaries. We do not pretend to provide such a grand synthesis in the limited space we have at our disposal: Given the current stage of the literature, such a summing-up is impossible, at least in a review article format. Instead, we endeavor to begin clearing the terrain by sketching some of the most interesting and promising developments across a number of disciplines. We also highlight the value added brought by the concept of boundaries to specific substantive topics, and we point to a few areas of possible theory building. These tasks are particularly important because citation patterns suggest that researchers who draw on the concept of boundaries are largely unaware of the use to which it is put beyond their own specialties and across the social sciences. One general theme that runs through this literature across the disciplines is the search for understanding the role of symbolic resources. In order to capture this process better, we think it is useful to introduce a distinction between symbolic and social boundaries. Symbolic boundaries are conceptual distinctions made by social actors to categorize objects, people, practices, and even time and space. They are tools by which individuals and groups struggle over and come to agree upon definitions of reality. Examining them allows us to capture the dynamic dimensions of social relations, as groups compete in the production, diffusion, and institutionalization of alternative systems and principles of classifications. Symbolic boundaries also separate people into groups and generate feelings of similarity and group membership (Epstein 1992, p. They are an essential medium through which people acquire status and monopolize resources. Social boundaries are objectified forms of social differences manifested in unequal access to and unequal distribution of resources (material and nonmaterial) and social opportunities. They are also revealed in stable behavioral patterns of association, as manifested in connubiality and commensality. But symbolic and social boundaries should be viewed as equally real: the former exist at the intersubjective level whereas the latter manifest themselves as groupings of individuals. At the causal level, symbolic boundaries can be thought of as a necessary but insufficient condition for the existence of social boundaries (Lamont 1992, Ch. While the relationship of symbolic and social boundaries is at the heart of the literature under review here, it most often remains implicit. Whereas the earlier literature tended to focus on social boundaries and monopolization processes-in a neo-Weberian fashion-the more recent work points to the articulation between symbolic and social boundaries.


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The resolution provides one hour of general debate equally divided and controlled by the chair and ranking minority member of the Committee on the Judiciary pain medication for dogs with ear infection safe maxalt 10mg. The resolution makes in order as original text for the purpose of amendment the amendment in the nature of a substitute recommended by the Committee on the Judiciary now printed in the bill and provides that it shall be considered as read pain medication for dogs buy 10mg maxalt with amex. The resolution waives all points of order against that amendment in the nature of a substitute. The resolution makes in order only those further amendments printed in this report. Each such amendment may be offered only in the order printed in this report, may be offered only by a Member designated in this report, shall be considered as read, shall be debatable for the time specified in this report equally divided and controlled by the proponent and an opponent, shall not be subject to amendment, and shall not be subject to a demand for division of the question in the House or in the Committee of the Whole. The resolution waives all points of order against the amendments printed in this report. Priorities and performance standards for customs modernization, trade facilitation, and trade enforcement functions and programs. Educational seminars to improve efforts to classify and appraise imported articles, to improve trade enforcement efforts, and to otherwise facilitate legitimate international trade. The House amendment struck all of the Senate amendment after the enacting clause and inserted a substitute text. The Senate recedes from its disagreement to the amendment of the House with an amendment that is a substitute for the House amendment and the Senate amendment. The differences between the Senate amendment, the House amendment, and the substitute agreed to in conference are noted below, except for clerical corrections, conforming changes made necessary by agreements reached by the conferees, and minor drafting and clarifying changes. This would apply to partnership programs established before enactment of this bill, and any programs established after enactment. Lowey, as Ranking Minority Member of the Full Committee, are authorized to sit as Members of all Subcommittees. It is designed as a review for the practicing ophthalmologist and as a preparatory course for the candidate for board examinations in ophthalmology. A self-assessment quiz will be given, followed by a didactic lecture and then the quiz will be repeated. Subjects of less importance will be included in the outline but mentioned only briefly in the lecture. It is not possible to cover all ocular tumors in this outline or in the discussion. For more comprehensive reading, please see the textbooks cited at the end of this outline. Ophthalmic tumor review- Shields - 2 2 Review of Ophthalmic Tumors Self-assessment Quiz 1. This eyelid lesion in an 80-year-old patient has shown slowly progressive enlargement for two years. Which of the following has been described as a complication of corticosteroid injection of the condition shown in the photograph? This conjunctival lesion has shown slow enlargement in a 55-year-old person for 8 years. A young child with pigmented cutaneous macules and painless progressive visual loss for 12 months develops ipsilateral axial proptosis as shown. Clinical 1 Rough-surfaced elevated, well-defined lesion 2 Can be sessile or pedunculated lesion b. Outward acanthosis, proliferation of basal cells Ophthalmic tumor review- Shields - 5 5 2. Small lesion-primary excision; Larger lesion: biopsy prior to definitive surgery 2. Nevoid basal call carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome) Autosomal dominant, 0. Dyskeratosis and mitotic activity d Treatment: Similar to basal cell carcinoma; may require orbital exenteration C.

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Livingstone C W pain treatment for ovarian cysts cheap maxalt 10 mg online, Gauer B B treatment guidelines for knee pain order maxalt 10 mg on-line, Shelton M 1978 A specific ureaplasmal serotype associated with ovine uterine infections. McCaughey W J, Ball H J 1981 Distribution of ureaplasmas in the urogenital tract of ewes. Roberts D S 1967 the pathogenic synergy of Fusiformis necrophorus and Corynebacterium pyogenes. In Gyles C L, Thoen C O (eds) Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals (1st edn). Singh N, Rajyan B S, Mohanty G C 1974 Granular vulvovaginitis in goats associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae. Tiwana J S, Singh N 1982 Isolation of Acholeplasma oculi from genital lesions in sheep. Trichard C J V, Jordan P Prozesky L, Jacobsz, E P Henton M M 1993 the identification of, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Large Colony as the aetiological agent of balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis in sheep in South Africa. Trichard C J V, Van Tonder E M 1994 Ulcerative balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis in sheep and goats. In Coetzer J A W, Thomson G R, Tustin R C (eds) Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to southern Africa (1st edn). By blocking immune checkpoints, immunotherapy puts the immune system into a state of hyperactivation that can cause immune-related adverse events. We present the clinical, pathological and molecular data of a patient with metastatic cervical cancer and progressive disease after second-line therapy. Case presentation: We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who was diagnosed with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with paraaortic lymph node metastases. After an initial combined radio-chemotherapy with cisplatin, she developed local and nodal (supraclavicular) recurrence. Second-line chemotherapy with 6 cycles of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab resulted in a partial response for 6 months. Checkpoint inhibition with nivolumab was started due to progression, leading to persistent complete remission. Immunotherapy was well tolerated for 8 months until the patient presented with an immune-related isolated vulvitis, which was successfully managed with topical corticosteroids. Conclusions: the persistent complete response after third-line treatment for relapsed chemotherapy-resistant cervical cancer presented in this case highlights the potential of immunotherapy for patients with advanced cervical cancer impressively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an isolated immune-related vulvitis under nivolumab. This adverse event might be underdiagnosed and mistreated, however, it is of importance due to its impact on quality of life, sexual wellbeing and compliance of patients. In the future, routine molecular tumour profiling is likely to aid in the stratification of cervical cancer patients for immunotherapy. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer (2019) 7:281 Page 2 of 7 Background Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as a novel option for many patients with advanced cancers whom previously had limited treatment options and experienced poor outcomes. While clinical studies have demonstrated survival benefits and durable responses in various cancer entities, immunotherapy of gynaecological cancers is still in relative infancy. Under physiological conditions, immune checkpoints play a crucial role in preventing autoimmunity [1]. Immune checkpoint inhibitors reduce the interaction between cancer cells and T cells so that re-activated lymphocytes can destroy their malignant targets. For the last 20 years, the standard of care for patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer has been cisplatin-based chemotherapy combined with paclitaxel. However, despite the addition of other agents such as vinorelbine, gemcitabine or topotecan [3], most patients deteriorated rapidly, developing platinum resistance at recurrence [4]. Adding bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, to chemotherapy became the standard of care since the Gynecologic Oncology Group 240 trial demonstrated a survival benefit of almost 4 months [5]. However, it remains challenging to select patients with a potential therapeutic response and to anticipate the magnitude of response. Last, immune responsiveness signatures based on methylation profiles, as already identified in lung cancer, are rapidly moving into clinical focus [10]. First-line treatment included combined radiochemotherapy with 6 cycles of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly and lymph node irradiation, which was followed by intra-cervical brachytherapy with Iridium-192 resulting in a partial response. Three months later, progressive disease with a new palpable mass in a left supraclavicular lymph node and suspicion of pulmonary metastases (small nodules of 6 mm, not amenable to biopsy) was noted.

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Criminal syndicates have long been known to monterey pain treatment medical center purchase maxalt 10mg overnight delivery support terrorist groups by facilitating their clandestine transborder movements pain treatment center memphis cheap maxalt 10mg visa, weapons smuggling, and forging of documents. Of particular concern would be the ability of some of these groups to acquire radioactive materials or chemical and biological weapons. Despite differences in motivation and ideology, terrorists and insurgents increasingly turn to criminal networks to acquire financial and logistical support. In one direction, terrorist organizations overcome differences in motivation and ideology as they turn to transnational illicit networks such as drug-trafficking 217 Luna organizations or facilitators for logistical support. In the other direction, terrorists and insurgent groups are increasingly evolving into criminal entrepreneurs in their own right, engaging in a wide range of illicit activities to finance their operations. Some criminal networks, such as Los Zetas in Mexico, are not only expanding their operations, but also diversifying their methods to include terrorist-like tactics and campaigns of violence. According to news reports, this transnational ring launders hundreds of millions of drug dollars each year, funneling illicit funds through free trade zones in Panama and Hong Kong in order to "clean" the money and using other methods of laundering in other parts of the world including Africa and Canada. Owing to pressure from the United States and committed international partners to implement a no-tolerance policy against the state sponsorship of terror since September 11, 2001, al Qaeda and other terrorist groups have resorted to illicit activities to finance their operations including drug dealing (prior to the Madrid bombings of 2004), credit card theft, and insurance scams. Further media reports suggest that despite their ideological aversion to common criminal activity, terrorist organizations operating in the Middle East and North Africa do engage in crime when it is necessary to achieve their objectives, particularly arms and narcotics trafficking, smuggling goods and commodities, migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons, extortion, kidnapping, intellectual property theft, counterfeiting, fraud, credit theft, armed robbery, and money laundering, which is nearly identical to terrorist financing. It has also been reported in the press that drug kingpin Dawood Ibrahim, head of the D-Company hybrid organization, has helped finance the terror activities of Lashkar-e-Taiba, which has launched terrorist attacks in Mumbai and other cities across South Asia. The illegal economy that has grown globally is making it increasingly difficult to shut off the spigot used to finance terrorism, at least through traditional means. As terrorist groups mimic the tactics of organized crime, international counterterrorism efforts need to incorporate law enforcement tools as part of a global strategic response. Along these lines, preventing the criminal facilitation of terrorist activities was identified as a priority in the 2011 Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime, and preventing the collaboration between criminal and terrorist networks and depriving them of their critical resources and infrastructure, such as funding, logistical support, safe havens, and the procurement of illicit materiel, were highlighted as major objectives. Smart Power Diplomacy: Fighting Networks with Networks the illicit networks and converging threat networks outlined above necessitate strong responses and partnerships. Fighting transnational crime and dismantling illicit networks is not something that any one government or agency can do alone. As underscored by President 218 Fighting Networks with Networks Obama, "This strategy is organized around a single, unifying principle: To build, balance, and integrate the tools of American power to combat transnational organized crime and related threats to our national security-and urge our partners to do the same. Government to improve internal cooperation and build domestic security and law enforcement networks to fight illicit networks. Enhanced coordination enables the international community to dismantle criminal networks and combat the threats they pose not only through law enforcement efforts, but also by building up governance capacity, supporting committed reformers, and strengthening the ability of citizens-including journalists-to monitor public functions and hold leaders accountable for providing safety, effective public services, and efficient use of public resources. In places like Central America, traffickers and criminal gangs now facilitate the flow of up to 95 percent of all cocaine reaching the United States. West Africa faces a growing danger from transnational criminal organizations, particularly narcotics traffickers, whose activities threaten the collective security and regional stability interests of the United States, its African partners, and the international community. Illicit markets and those who profit from them weaken public institutions, foster corruption, and foment violence. In consultation with African and international partners, the United States will seek opportunities to complement and enable regional and national initiatives that seek to achieve similar objectives. Central Asian states on the Afghan border also face a significant threat from illicit narcotic drugs transiting from Afghanistan. Violent extremist groups from Afghanistan and Pakistan threaten stability in the region, with drug trafficking providing a significant source of their funding. Government is partnering with Central Asian states directly to counter these threats. Transpacific Networks on Dismantling Transnational Illicit Networks the State Department is also developing more dynamic interregional partnerships that strengthen cross-border cooperation including with Australia, New Zealand, and other committed jurisdictions. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Trans-Pacific Symposium on Dismantling Transnational Illicit Networks, in Honolulu. The United States was represented by senior officials from the Departments of Justice, Treasury, Homeland Security, State, Defense, and their law enforcement components including the Joint Interagency Task Force­West and U. Out of the Trans-Pacific Symposium emerged many ideas on ways to better equip participating countries against illicit threats across the region. These include devising more strategic frameworks and information-sharing arrangements, leveraging international cooperation across regional and global law enforcement networks, strengthening capacity-building in law enforcement, coordinating joint investigations to target "money conduits" and corruption nodes, and securing borders.

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The manuscript collections also provide an opportunity for scholars to knee pain treatment without surgery purchase maxalt 10 mg line reexamine the performance of individual soldiers and military units in the war pain treatment back cheap 10mg maxalt with visa. The exercise appears to have involved little danger and is presented as a welcome intrusion into the camp routine. In the area of religion, extensive reading in the collections seems to lead to the conclusion that, at least during the height of the war, the militant Christian was a contradiction in terms. Moreover, if comments in the collections about professional men of faith who entered the army can be trusted, chaplains seem often to have failed in their mission. Occasionally, a particularly devout recruit would gather a half dozen followers for evening prayers and Bible study, but the sessions did not continue long and excited little interest among the rank and file. Christian Commission and Sanitary Commission visiting Federal troops in the war zone were greeted eagerly if they had food and clothing to distribute, but piety was at a discount. Some observers testified that the men fought mechanically, without malice, just as they would sift grain or saw wood. They might be moved greatly by jealousy of each other or become enraged at some petty encroachment by a comrade, a deficiency in their rations, or some insult or unfairness on the part of an officer, but of God and his worship- nothing at all. This regression in religious interest and observance is neatly outlined in the postwar remarks of William McDonald, a surgeon with the Army of the Potomac: "The chaplains were often called upon to hold Service on Sundays regularly during the winter of 1861 and 1862, not at all during the Peninsular Campaign, now and then during the winter of 1862 and 1863, and never after as far as my knowledge and observation went. The hopes and achievements, the disappointments and sufferings of freedmen, appear in diverse and sundry ways: in the unlearned scrawl of a grateful black recruit, in the sharp rebuttal of a black officer defending the performance of his troops, in the compassionate observations of missionaries and volunteer teachers, in the casual but telltale remarks of officers and soldiers, and in the recollections of escaped Federal prisoners of war. Many Union soldiers had never been in contact with blacks, free or slave, before they entered the South, and their unacclimated eyes caught nuances of black life and culture often overlooked by more experienced observers. It was also difficult to predict the reactions of individual white soldiers to blacks. Among officers, adverse feelings toward blacks sometimes outweighed the responsibility of their position, while common soldiers like Joseph Lester, an artisan with the 6th Wisconsin Battery, displayed a statesmanlike understanding of racial and political problems. Tennessee; and various field surgeons, medical assistants, regular and volunteer nurses, and sick and wounded soldiers. There is even a collection of original letters and photographs from a national postwar left-handed penmanship contest that was designed to boost the morale and employability of disabled Union veterans. The kind of information available in medically oriented collections concerns the contraction and treatment of diseases among combat troops and prisoners of war, treatable and untreatable wounds, the distribution of convalescents among hospitals throughout the northeast, medical facilities (surgical tents, emergency field hospitals, and departmental hospitals), medical conveyances (field ambulances, deep water transports, and hospital ships), hospital diets, and the attitude of soldiers toward doctors. Particularly diligent researchers may occasionally glimpse the frustrations of Civil War doctors whose medicine chests were pilfered by alcoholics and drug addicts, who were obliged to stand helplessly by while politically connected, though well intentioned, humanitarians like Clara Barton distributed apples to soldiers with serious stomach and intestinal wounds, or who were deserted by medical impostors they entrusted to seal the wounds of new amputees. Researchers can pursue the design and construction of Civil War vessels (monitors, ironclads, rams, gunboats, mortar boats, torpedo boats, transports, hospital ships, and submarines) and ordnance (floating, submarine, and on-board torpedoes, and improved Dahlgren, Columbiad, and Parrott cannons) in the massive Naval Historical Foundation collection. Scholars interested in military intelligence, particularly during the early xii part of the war, will find the papers of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency and the papers of John C. And anyone studying the military postal service, the military telegraph, and military engineering and mapmaking will be rewarded by a careful perusal of the collections herein described. The reasons that this situation exists cannot all be addressed here, but the larger number of Union soldiers, the higher literacy rate among northerners, and the survival of personal and public papers in a region relatively untouched by the war are obvious factors. At least Civil War scholars can be thankful that most secessionists accepted defeat more gracefully than one southern statesman who so hated the thought of a forced reunion with the North that on his deathbed late in the war he extracted a promise from his daughter to have a plow run over his grave if the South were subjugated. Civil War Manuscripts is a guide to the collections of the Manuscript Division that are made up of materials-either whole or in part-relating directly to the Civil War. The guide does not cover original materials in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, the Prints and Photographs Division, the Music Division, the Geography and Map Division, or the general collections. Although it is focused on the period of the war, it does include a few significant postwar items, such as materials concerning the assassination of President Lincoln, the trial of the Lincoln conspirators, and the Fitz-John Porter and Henry Wirz trials. No attempt has been made to survey collections concerning prewar politics and the secession controversy. Users will not necessarily be led to all of the material on any one subject; however, if they possess a good knowledge of the war and basic research skills, they can be reasonably certain of having been directed to most of the relevant items. In no case are all the papers of or about a single campaign, battle, individual, place, or topic contained in the Library of Congress. It is indeed rare when additional information on any subject cannot be found in other major libraries and archives. The term "Volunteer" as applied to regiments and companies is used rather indiscriminately, but apparent discrepancies are usually the result of reorganizations and consolidations, temporary reassignments, and misunderstandings. The second line in each entry contains a brief statement on the nature of the collection, such as personal or family papers, letters, diaries, and memoirs, which is followed by the inclusive dates and approximate size of the collection.

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Climate change in general could expand the displaced population to brunswick pain treatment center maxalt 10mg discount unprecedented levels with short-term surges resulting from extreme weather events such as floods pain treatment for endometriosis purchase 10mg maxalt with visa, droughts, hurricanes, and the like. A broadly liberal policy toward the immigration of environmental refugees would allow the problem to be managed through legal means. If states adopt strict controls on immigration, which is likely given the political pressure on governments to look after their own populations, organized crime will receive an enormous boost for its human-smuggling activities. On top of all this, climate change could alter strategic relationships among great powers, lead to interstate water conflicts, and create new and unpredictable vectors for disease transmission. Unless states are able to manage the resulting crises with a higher degree of competence than existing governance mechanisms and institutions, which are already under considerable stress, they could rapidly become scapegoats and targets. The Decline of the State and the Rise of Alternative Governance States clearly retain the formalities of sovereignty and the capacity to impose laws and regulations that determine the incentives and opportunities as well as the obstacles for organized crime and traffickers of various commodities. Yet the Westphalian state as such is past its peak-a peak symbolized most dramatically in the total wars of the twentieth century. Indeed, states face two fundamental and interconnected challenges: they are often unable to meet the economic needs and expectations of their citizens, and they are unable to elicit the loyalty and allegiance of significant portions of these same citizens. The inability of most states to meet the needs of their citizens reflects the rise of complex or wicked problems that are resistant to short-term or ready solutions as well as what might be called the long-term demography of unemployment. The job creation capacity of most countries of the developing world is already modest at best and will become even less adequate to meet the needs of growing populations, while even in developed countries large segments of immigrant populations remain unemployed, underemployed, or employed only for the most menial tasks. For countries such as Nigeria, even if they succeed in overcoming the mix of corruption and incompetence that pervades governance structures, it is unlikely they will create sufficient opportunities for a rapidly growing population. The result is that the disenfranchised and alienated segments of society will grow, as will disputes over resources. This is also likely in other African societies where the state, rather than being above politics, 27 Williams is simply the prize of politics. In these circumstances, politics becomes a zero-sum game and the distribution of the spoils is heavily skewed in the favor of the group, tribe, clan, ethnic, or sectarian faction in power. Even where "governance" is not a zero-sum game, however, the weaknesses of the state are often debilitating. These weaknesses can be understood in terms of capacity gaps and functional holes. Gaps in state capacity lead to an inability to carry out the "normal" and "expected" functions of the modern Westphalian state and to make adequate levels of public goods or collective provision for large parts of the citizenry. In Latin America, this has resulted in what Gabriel Marcella described as "inadequate public security forces, dysfunctional judicial systems, inadequate jails which become training schools for criminals, and deficiencies in other dimensions of state structure such as maintenance of infrastructure. They are separate entities often walled off from each other, though they interact with the informal state supporting the other. Other states too have leaders who hold the office of president or prime minister but are really little more than the mayor of the capital city. Indeed, in many countries in the developing world, the state has failed to expand its remit far beyond the capital in terms of either extraction or provision for the citizens. Such limitations put both the authority and legitimacy of the state into question. Even where governments have long been viable and effective and have enjoyed a high level of legitimacy, the state often appears to be in retreat. As reducing public debt becomes the first priority of governments, provision for social welfare and social safety nets is contracting. The welfare state was really limited to a small subset of countries and was fully embraced only in Western (and especially Northern) Europe, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and even some of these states are backing away from the levels of support they provided in the last several decades. In some instances such as Greece and Great Britain, the retrenchment process has provoked mob violence. For its part, the United States, having gradually created a partial and symbolic set of safety nets, is now in the process of restricting and reducing them. In an era characterized by austerity and concerns over public debt, the reality of the welfare state is increasingly restricted. Ironically, however, the idea of the welfare state and the expectation that the state is the provider of public goods remains prevalent, setting the scene for continuous disappointment and ultimately serious disaffection.

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The next section discusses findings concerning one behavioral consequence of a desire to quad pain treatment discount maxalt 10mg visa lose weight-dieting pain treatment center in lexington ky maxalt 10mg sale. Reflecting gender differences in body image dissatisfaction, males are less likely to report dieting to lose weight than are females (Keel, Baxter, et al. High school girls attempting to lose weight were, on average, normal weight, and high school boys attempting to lose weight were, on average, overweight (J. Moreover, the percentage of college students who want to lose weight exceeds the percentage who describe themselves as overweight (Heatherton et al. Further, the percentage who describe themselves as overweight far exceeds the percentage who are actually overweight (Heatherton et al. Thus many people who are normal weight-even many who view their weight as normal-attempt to lose weight by dieting. The physiology of weight control is a balance between energy intake (eating) and energy expenditure (resting metabolic rate plus activity level). So weight loss should be eminently attainable by reducing food intake and increasing exercise. From organized programs to commercially available liquid diets to specific food regimens (the Zone diet, high-protein diets, etc. The total amount of money spent on weight loss has increased steadily over recent years, without evidence that rates of obesity are declining (Engle, 2014). Although initial weight loss appears to be attainable with numerous weight loss programs, maintaining the weight loss is much more difficult. As noted in Chapter 4, one possible explanation for the failure of most diets to produce lasting weight loss is that dieting may contribute to binge eating, which then contributes to weight gain. Physically and psychologically healthy young men who had been conscientious objectors to the war were recruited for the study. Participants were placed on a diet and exercise regimen designed to reduce their weight to 75% of their previous weight. The results of this study (known as both the Conscientious Objectors Study and the Minnesota Starvation Study) have provided important insights concerning the consequences of food restriction and significant weight loss. By diminishing the amount of energy expended in maintaining the body, the men became more efficient in their use of calories. In addition to these physiological 82 82 e at i n g D i s o r D e r s changes, the men experienced increases in depression, introversion, apathy, and food-related obsessions and rituals. When the diet ended, 29% of the men reported beginning bingeeating episodes; that is, they had episodes in which they consumed large amounts of food and experienced a loss of control over their eating. For some men, this overconsumption led to vomiting, and one man required hospitalization after excessive food intake. These observations showed evidence of physiological mechanisms that prevent weight loss and contributed to the hypothesis that binge eating might represent a behavioral mechanism to prevent weight loss. After a series of animal studies, set-point theory emerged to explain why organisms resist weight change (Keesey, 1986). According to this theory, our bodies have evolved weight-defending mechanisms to withstand periods of famine. Such mechanisms could be triggered by dieting and make weight loss more difficult than is portrayed by weight loss programs. Appealing as this model is, it has received only partial support in research examining weight loss among overweight individuals. The onset of binge eating may be specific to individuals who go from a normal weight to underweight and may not extend to individuals who go from overweight to normal weight. Many adolescent girls begin to diet at essentially a normal weight and during a developmental period when the body is still growing. Thus weight loss from normal weight during a period when weight gain is supposed to occur may be adequate to trigger the same weight-defending mechanisms observed in the Conscientious Objectors Study. An association between dieting and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors has been demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies (Stice, 2002). Patton, Johnson-Sabine, Wood, Mann, and Wakeling (1990) found that girls who were dieting at initial assessment were eight times more likely to have developed an eating disorder at 12-month follow-up than were girls who were not dieting. In longitudinal studies, dieting most often precedes and predicts binge eating among adolescent girls (Patton et al.


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These actors include criminal and belligerent groups pain treatment on suboxone buy maxalt 10mg with mastercard, corrupt government officials pain treatment center in morehead ky buy 10 mg maxalt amex, and political power brokers. This infrastructure of crime can easily be transferred from one illicit economy to another. In Colombia, the drug trade built on several decades of smuggling cigarettes, household goods, marijuana, and emeralds. In Thailand, where the most effective alternative livelihoods programs in the world to date eliminated poppy cultivation, heroin smuggling and meth production have been thriving. In Afghanistan itself, the illegal drug economy was built on decades of smuggling including extensive smuggling of legal goods and gems, illegal logging, and illegal trade in wildlife. Apart from cannabis, which has already replaced opium cultivation in areas subject to bans, such as Balkh,48 the least dangerous and potentially most easily suppressible illicit replacement economy would be just such an increase in the illicit trade of licit goods. This traffic exists as a result of the Afghan Transit Trade Agreement, under which goods can be imported into Pakistan duty-free for reexport into Afghanistan. Goods are then smuggled with profit back into Pakistan, and smugglers avoid Pakistani tariffs. Already today, as in the 1990s, smuggling generates extensive revenues for the Taliban and others. A more ominous illicit replacement economy would be the production of synthetic drugs such as methamphetamines. Afghanistan would face stiff competition from Myanmar, Thailand, and Mexico, but the global market for synthetic drugs is rapidly growing, and Afghanistan could likely cut in on it. In that case, the country would still suffer from all the same political, economic, and social vices of illegal drug production, as is the case with opium cultivation. But the rural population would be left destitute since the production of synthetic drugs is much less labor-intensive than the cultivation of opium and hence could employ only a tiny fraction of the farmers and laborers of the opium economy. At the same time, large traffickers, corrupt government officials, and belligerent groups could easily maintain the level of income the opium economy affords them. Moreover, the production of synthetic drugs would be considerably harder to detect and disrupt. Rather than hoping that the overall criminal 200 Lessons for State-Building economy in Afghanistan can be eliminated, policymakers need to ask themselves what type of illicit economy is least detrimental to the objective of stabilizing Afghanistan and other key objectives. Correspondingly, efforts to disrupt the other illegal economies-those most disruptive of the key objectives-need to be maximized. The second what-then question of vital importance for the United States is what country opium cultivation would shift to. Given high world demand for illicit opiates, suppression of poppy cultivation in Afghanistan would not leave a highly lucrative market unsatiated but would simply move the industry elsewhere. Unlike coca, the opium poppy is a very adaptable plant that can be grown under a variety of climactic conditions. Theoretically, its cultivation could spread to many areas-Central Asia, back to the Golden Triangle of Southeast Asia, or West Africa. For over 20 years, Pakistan has been a major heroin refining and smuggling hub in the region. Today, these territories also have extensive and well-organized Salafi insurgency and terrorist groups that seek to limit the reach of the Pakistani state and topple the government. A relocation of extensive poppy cultivation there would be highly detrimental to U. Such a shift would not only increase profit possibilities for Pakistani belligerents, but also provide them with significant political capital by allowing them to become important local employers sponsoring a labor-intensive economy in areas with minimal employment opportunities. Opium poppy cultivation often involved entire tribes and represented the bulk of the local economy in these highly isolated (geographically, politically, and economically) places. Consisting mainly of small rural infrastructure projects and special economic opportunity zones (similar to those for textiles promoted by the current U. However, the dominant reason for the decline in opium poppy cultivation was not counternarcotics efforts, whether eradication or alternative development, but rather the wholesale shift of cultivation to Afghanistan during the 1990s.

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Crying and irritability is usually a sign of pain from any site; children may also become withdrawn or still when in pain pain medication for dogs tylenol buy 10 mg maxalt amex. In addition pain diagnosis treatment center tulsa generic maxalt 10mg amex, difficulty breathing, rash and conjunctivitis are common but non-specific signs. History needs to be obtained from the caretakers and, if available, the mobile phone number of the caretaker or neighbors recorded if the child is separated from the caretakers. The incubation period for these viruses (that is, the period when the patient remains asymptomatic after exposure to a contact) can range from 2 to 21 days. Ebola and Marburg virus diseases usually begin with a flu-like syndrome with fever and profound weakness, often accompanied by arthralgia, myalgia, headache, anorexia and occasionally hiccups. Patients may also complain of dysphagia and abdominal pain ­ epigastric, right subcostal and lower abdominal pain. These are usually followed by gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. In the West African outbreak of 2014-2015, the gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea) were particularly severe and led to most of the physiological decompensation experienced. A range of multi-organ acute complications of Ebola were observed, including hypovolaemic and septic shock, metabolic acidosis, occasional hypoxic pulmonary insufficiency and ventilatory failure, electrolyte abnormalities and renal insufficiency, and coagulation abnormalities but without frequent hemorrhagic shock (3). Despite a widely held belief that haemorrhage is a defining feature of filovirus disease, visible bleeding may be uncommon. When present, bleeding is not an early presenting feature; it often appears only in the later stages of disease. It may manifest as overt bleeding or a combination of major and minor bleeding signs, but often it is only minimal and sometimes solely internal (and, therefore, frequently missed). Early and late clinical features of Ebola/Marburg infection Note: There is often an overlap of early and late symptoms. Early clinical features (30) · Intense tiredness, weakness, malaise · Fever (defined as > 38. Late clinical features · Confusion and irritability · Seizures · Chest pain · Diarrhoea (watery or bloody) · Vomiting (sometimes bloody) · Skin rash · Internal and/or external bleeding including: - oozing from puncture sites - rashes suggestive of easy bleeding. Natural history of Ebola, based on 2014 outbreak, combined experience from Sierra Leone (32) and Liberia (2) Average time since symptom onset 0­3 days Phase of illness Undifferentiated febrile illness (90%) 4­10 days Gastro-intestinal (60­80%) Clinical features Fever (38. Lower chest/epigastric pain nausea and vomiting hiccups diarrhoea (occasionally with mucus) cramps or diffuse abdominal pain (sometimes right upper quadrant abdominal pain: liver tenderness) conjunctival injection. Neurological complications confusion and disorientation agitation (may lead to falling on the floor) bradipsichia (unable to keep attention) extreme weakness (unable to stand up and walk) Death may occur in 24­48 hours after the onset of neurological abnormalities. Resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms and fever increased appetite increased energy convalescent weakness. Secondary infections (including candidiasis, oral ulcers) multiorgan failure tachypnoea (Kussmaul breathing from acidosis) seizures death complications due to electrolyte abnormalities in patients with previous good outcome. Therefore, prompt laboratory testing is important to identify Lassa fever early enough for ribavirin to be effective. Swollen face and neck are classic signs in Lassa fever but occur in only about 10% of cases; these signs are not seen in Ebola/Marburg. Sore throat occurs in both but exudative pharyngitis and convalescent hearing loss suggest Lassa fever. Lassa fever typically has a more indolent presentation; patients feel fatigued and "feverish" for a few days. In about 80% of people infected, Lassa fever is mild or has no observable symptoms. Because of these frequently mild infections, the overall case fatality rate can be quite low; hospital studies in symptomatic patients report the case fatality rate as 15 to 25% (33,34). Severe multisystem disease is seen in a subset of patients, however, and in some epidemics mortality as high as 80% has been reported. There may be differences in viral strain between Lassa fever in Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Moreover, disease seems to be more severe in pregnancy, with frequent maternal mortality, particularly in the third trimester, and 80% fetal loss. The virus is excreted in urine for 3­9 weeks after infection and in semen for 3 months (35).


  • https://www.imedpub.com/articles/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-metformin.pdf
  • http://www.rlandrews.org/pdf_files/handbk_of_enteralfeeding.pdf
  • https://semmelweis.hu/english/files/2016/06/Dentistry_questions_final_2016.pdf
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