The unique and unrepeatable sacrifice of Christ on the Cross is made present on the altar; the work of our redemption is accomplished asthma treatment 4 hives fluticasone 100mcg cheap. Through Jesus asthma definition psychology order 250 mcg fluticasone fast delivery, who is led like a lamb to slaughter, we are freed from our sins and find peace with God. In the Eucharistic liturgy, the invocation of Christ, "Lamb of God", begins a litanylike prayer that has been part of every Holy Mass in the Roman Rite since the seventh century. By "eating" the Body of Christ, the Church becomes the Body of Christ, which is just another name for the Church. In the sacrifice of Christ, who gives himself to us, body and soul, there is room for our whole life. If we offer ourselves in this way, we are transformed: We become pleasing to God and like good, nourishing bread for our fellowmen. Because God is truly present in the consecrated species of bread and wine, we must preserve the sacred gifts with the greatest reverence and worship our Lord and Redeemer in the Most Blessed Sacrament. Certainly, anyone who is really following Christ will recognize him in the poorest of the poor and serve him in them. But he will also find time to spend in adoration before the tabernacle and offer his love to our Eucharistic Lord. A Catholic Christian is obliged to attend Holy Mass on all Sundays and holy days of obligation. No one can have a living relationship with Christ without going to the place where he is waiting for us. Therefore, from ancient times the celebration of Mass has been the "heart of Sunday" and the most important appointment in the week. Often doxologies are addressed to the Holy Trinity, for instance, Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end, the formula that usually concludes a Christian prayer. Lord, I am not worthy to have you come under my roof; but only say the word, and my servant will be healed. Mt 8:8 Before receiving Holy Communion, every Catholic Christian recites an adaptation of these words that the centurion spoke to Jesus: "Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed. It would be a contradiction if the Church were to invite to Communion people who do not (yet) share the faith and life of the Church. In the case of members of other Christian "ecclesial communities" or denominations, Holy Communion may be administered to an individual if there is a grave necessity and evidence of faith in the Real Presence in the Eucharist. Other ecumenical liturgies, in which Christians of various denominations pray together, are good and are also desired by the Catholic Church. Our sharing in the Body and Blood of Christ has no other purpose than to transform us into that which we receive. Jesus promised his disciples, and us with them, that we will one day sit at table with him. Therefore every Holy Mass is a "memorial of the blessed Passion" (Eucharistic Prayer I, called the Roman Canon), the fullness of grace, and a pledge of future glory. For seeing you, our God, as you are, we shall be like you for all the ages and praise you without end. Baptism does snatch us from the power of sin and death and brings us into the new life of the children of God, but it does not free us from human weakness and the inclination to sin. But it is one of the greatest graces that we can receive again and again in our life-it truly renews the soul, completely unburdens it, leaving it without the debts of the past, accepted in love, and equipped with new strength. God is merciful, and he desires nothing more earnestly than for us, too, to lay claim to his mercy. Someone who has gone to confession turns a clean, new page in the book of his life. Jesus himself instituted the sacrament of Penance when he showed himself to his apostles on Easter day and commanded them, "Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained" (Jn 20:22a-23). Yet our Father waits for us with great, indeed, infinite longing; he forgives us when we come back; he takes us in again, forgives our sins.
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One-year lag tests For the growth indicators nervous asthma definition purchase 250 mcg fluticasone amex, Table 1 demonstrates a significant difference in the two groups in the distribution and median of sales variation 98960 asthma fluticasone 250 mcg low cost. For each group, the median is negative, indicating that a majority of firms had suffered a reduction in turnover, but for the network firms, the median was lower (1. This would indicate that belonging to a network gave firms the strength to better withstand the period of economic crisis. The variation in the total assets appears not to be significant; however, the median in this variation is higher for the network firms. The intangible indicator (R&D and patent investment on total assets) decreased for both groups of firms, but the median of the network firms was worse than that of the other group (20. It should be noted that only the R&D and patents acquired upon payment are included in the assets, which means that all the implicit knowledge acquired is not considered by this indicator. The distribution and the median of variations in labor productivity are significantly different in the two groups. In a period of economic crisis, the group of network firms appears to have maintained the level of labor productivity in median, while for the others the median variation is negative (2. No significant results were found with reference to the majority of the profitability indicators. In the first year after network creation, firms do not perform significantly better or worse than those who have not joined a network. These data are not surprising because profitability is a performance measure that is affected by a large number of determinants, and for most of them, demonstrable effect is likely to be delayed. The last area of performance comparative evaluation is that of financial indicators, relating to solvency (the incidence of equity on total assets), net financial position (financial debts minus liquidity), and debt/equity ratio. The medians of the variables for network firms indicate a lower increase in solvency (0. These results must be considered in context of a period of "credit crunch" for the majority of firms. As such, the tendency of network firms to have higher leverage is a sign of better credit worthiness compared to non-network firms. Table 2 presents the results of the tests conducted on the two samples of firms, for which a two-year variation was available. Two-year lag tests Nearly all indicators confirmed the evolution already noted in the one-year lag tests for network firms compared to non-network firms. For the profitability indexes, only the median test on assets rotation appears to be significant; however, compared to the results of the one-year lag test, at the two-year lag, the network firms demonstrate a higher decrease in this indicator compared to the non-network firms. To better explain the relationship between the one-year and the two-year variations, we also conducted the tests on two constant samples of network and non-network firms, so that the one-year and two-year variations were calculated on the same two groups of firms (only those that had both one-year and two-year variations available). Tests based on two constant samples of firms (network and non-network) with one-year and two-year lags the variables whose test on distribution and median had a significant result for both year lags indicate a persistent effect of network participation on performance after one and two years for sales, total assets, intangibles, and solvency ratio. For asset rotation and net financial position, the test is significant only in the second year of analysis, while the difference in productivity appears to be statistically significant only for one-year lag tests. For the direction of the difference, indicated by the comparison of the median in the two groups, Table 3 confirms the higher growth (or lower decrease) in sales and assets, the higher reduction in intangible intensity, the lower reduction in productivity, and the positive variation in indicators referring to debt for network firms compared to non-network firms. Only the effects on profitability do not appear to be significantly and univocally different (in direction) for network firms compared to non-network firms. They were introduced in a period of economic downturn, creating an opportunity for companies to reduce the negative effects of the crisis, cooperating to survive (Cantele and Vernizzi, 2014). Therefore, a relative better performance is expected when considering firms cooperating in a network compared to firms facing the crisis alone. Among the expected positive effects of belonging to a network, we analyzed growth, intangibles, productivity, profitability and financial position. Recent years have witnessed a difficult situation for many Italian firms, with a median reduction in sales, productivity, profitability and credit line form the banks (Cerved, 2014). The decrease in sales, which has not been offset by a decrease in costs (in particular, fixed costs such as those of personnel) has created a reduction in cash flow; this in turn has caused low feasibility for new investments, exacerbated by the credit crunch imposed by the bank system. Within this context, we demonstrated that networking firms experienced lower decreases in sales, productivity, investments (total assets), and in their financial position.
Deborah Tannen has explained these differences as being due asthma bronchitis remedies discount fluticasone 100 mcg without a prescription, at least in part asthmatic bronchitis elderly 500 mcg fluticasone otc, to the dissimilar ways in which parents socialize males and females. Along with emotional and sexual fluctuations comes the need for adolescents to question authority and societal values, as well as to test limits within existing relationships. Societal mores and expectations during adolescence restrain the curiosity so characteristic of young children, even though peer pressure to try new things and behave in certain ways is also very powerful. Additionally, teenagers experience a growing desire for personal responsibility and independence from their parents, along with an ever-growing, irresistible interest in sexuality. Thus, in the last 50 years or so, sociologists have taken a special interest in studying these scientific phenomena from a scientific point of view. Social Groups A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. A social category is a collection of people who do not interact but who share similar characteristics. For example, women, men, the elderly, and high school students all constitute social categories. A social category can become a social group when the members in the category interact with each other and identify themselves as members of the group. In contrast, a social aggregate is a collection of people who are in the same place, but who do not interact or share characteristics. Psychologists Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif, in a classic experiment in the 1950s, divided a group of 12-year-old white, middle-class boys at a summer camp into the "Eagles" and the "Rattlers. But as time passed and they began to consider themselves to be either Eagles or Rattlers, these 12year-old boys formed two distinct social groups. They formed in-groups (to which loyalty is expressed) and out-groups (to which antagonism is expressed). This competition with the other group can also strengthen the unity within each group. Members apply positive stereotypes to their in-group and negative stereotypes to the out-group. In other words, loyalty to the in-group led to antagonism and aggression toward the out-group, including fierce competitions for the same resources. Later in the same experiment, though, Sherif had the boys work together to solve mutual problems. When they cooperated with one another, the Eagles and Rattlers became less divided, hostile, and competitive. People may form opinions or judge their own behaviors against those of a reference group (a group used as a standard for selfappraisals). Parishioners at a particular church, for instance, may evaluate themselves by the standards of a denomination, and then feel good about adhering to those standards. Such positive self-evaluation reflects the normative effect that a reference group has on its own members, as well as those who compare themselves to the group. If most parishioners shine in their spiritual accomplishments, then the others will probably compare themselves to them. Consequently, the "not-so-spiritual" parishioners may form a negative self-appraisal for not feeling "up to par. Primary groups are those in which individuals intimately interact and cooperate over a long period of time. Examples of primary groups are families, friends, peers, neighbors, classmates, sororities, fraternities, and church members. These groups are marked by primary relationships in which communication is informal. In contrast, secondary groups are those in which individuals do not interact much. Members of secondary groups are less personal or emotional than those of primary groups.
It is seldom possible to asthma genetic cheap 500 mcg fluticasone overnight delivery conduct intelligence gathering against external targets without breaking the law somewhere asthma definition by gina buy fluticasone 250 mcg line, and this needs to be clearly articulated when operations are being approved. Secondly, there needs to be central direction about who does what, who is allowed to collect which intelligence and so on to stop needless competition and expensive duplication. In particular, there needs to be a common understanding about areas of operation, i. This can be helpful, not least in reducing duplication and making it more difficult for the political leadership to abuse the intelligence services for its own ends. But as with all laws, the real issue is not what they determine, but whether they are obeyed. A political culture in which politicians have always used the intelligence services to harass their political opponents will not change overnight just because a new law says they should not. So far, this chapter has concentrated on the collection of intelligence since it is the most difficult and the most frequently misunderstood area of operations. Apart from the inherent difficulty gathering the material, the main obstacle to the right conclusions being drawn from the information is very often rivalry between different analytical organisations. First, intelligence information should be circulated for analysis as widely as possible so that it can be commented upon by a range of experts. Secondly, competing analyses should be avoided by insisting on the provision of a single joint assessment that is binding on all. This may be obtained by discussion and compromise, or by appointing a single central producer of analysis. The objective, in security policy terms, is that intelligence information should take its place seamlessly with other types of information so that decision-makers can have a proper picture. The argument can be summarised by defining three stages of the intelligence process, as follows: Intelligence collection. In the collection process we include information made available by friends and allies. This is the process of making sense of what one has learnt, both in its immediate context and more broadly in terms of what else one knows about the subject. This is the process of getting intelligence into the hands of those who can make practical use of it in the development and implementation of defence and security policy. To conduct a sensible foreign policy, a defence policy and even a trade and economic policy, one needs to know the answers to such questions as the following, amongst many others: How stable is the government of my neighbour? As already noted, a vast range of information is available to governments without it having to be collected through intelligence. However, it is most unlikely that a state will tell another government everything the latter might wish to know. Many states also have onerous secrecy laws, making the discovery of even routine information difficult. Moreover, states are increasingly interested in the activities of non-state actors, ranging from multinational corporations to organised crime, arms traffickers and warlords. Such bodies are seldom transparent about their activities, or even about their existence, and covert methods may be the only way of finding out what the government needs to know. Thus, mafias and organised crime networks that practice political violence, may be based on clan and village structures, may speak obscure languages and may be impossible to penetrate by ordinary means. It is these types of organisations intelligence services have to direct their activities at as well. Methods may embrace the cultivation of agents, surveillance, bribery, blackmail and burglary. The passive variety includes the use of technology in a covert fashion, such as communications interception, illegal over-flights or satellite reconnaissance. I have divided intelligence collection in this way because the first category involves political risk and the second generally does not. The cultivation of agents, forcible entry and intelligence overflights all have the potential to go wrong, and have indeed often done so. In political terms, such actions would also be regarded as unfriendly acts by the recipient power, in a manner that passive electronic surveillance, say, would not. This political dimension makes it especially important that the intelligence services of a state are under firm political direction and that the government as a whole is able to make sensible judgements about whether the potential for damage outweighs the potential benefit of the information obtained. What is clear is that intelligence gathering is complex, expensive and often politically risky. It may be that all one reasonably needs to know about a target is readily available and it would therefore make more sense to direct effort at more difficult targets elsewhere.
Her projects include developing decision aids asthma definition 2d purchase fluticasone 100 mcg without prescription, portals for community engagement asthma treatment bts buy fluticasone 500mcg with mastercard, requirement and usability evaluation, and mixedmethod approaches to studying implementation and outcomes. Kukafka is an elected member of the American College of Medical Informatics and the New York Academy of Medicine. Kukafka has authored over 100 articles, chapters and books in the field of biomedical informatics including a textbook (Consumer Health Informatics: Informing Consumers and Improving Health Care with D. Liu serves as the section head for Medical Informatics in the Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics. Additionally, she has been conducting collaborative research in the past decade in utilizing existing knowledge bases for high-throughput omics profiling data analysis and functional interpretation. Her work accelerates the pace of knowledge discovery, implementation and delivery for improved health care. He is a practicing primary care provider and is board certified in Internal Medicine and Clinical Informatics. He is an elected fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Medical Informatics. Matheny has published over 100 manuscripts in journals including the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, and his expertise is in predictive analytics, machine learning, and medical device surveillance. Current projects include product development programs in Discovery & Translational Sciences involving Bayesian Networks. His activity also includes machine-learning and modeling of health economics collaborating with the Global Development division. McNair is lead inventor on more than 100 patents and pending patent applications, including several involving Bayesian predictive models for clinical diagnostics. She is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pierce and Associates and adjunct faculty at the University of Utah David Eccles School of Business. He supports a range of clients in their healthcare planning, improvement, strategic measurement, analysis, and evaluation needs. He is a well-published national expert who speaks frequently on the topics of measuring and improving healthcare costs, quality/safety, outcomes and value. Her interests span machine learning, computational statistics, and its applications to domains where one has to draw inferences from observing a complex, real-world system evolve over time. The emphasis of her research is on Bayesian and probabilistic graphical modeling approaches for addressing challenges associated with modeling and prediction in real-world temporal systems. In the last seven years, she has been particularly drawn to computational solutions for problems in health informatics as she sees a tremendous opportunity there for high impact work. Prior to joining Johns Hopkins, she earned her PhD and Masters at Stanford in Computer Science working with Dr. While in the Valley, she also spent time as an early employee at Aster Data Systems, a big data startup acquired by Teradata. She works with faculty leadership to thought partner and launches new centers, initiatives, academic programs and more. She teaches coursework in Leveraging Conflict for Constructive Change, Leadership Skills, and Mediation. She is also a trained Mediator and Restorative Justice practitioner for the State of California, serving as the Co-Chair of the Commission on Juvenile Delinquency and Prevention for San Mateo County. Trivedi is also interested in identifying barriers and facilitators of chronic illness selfmanagement, and developing family centered self-management programs that address the needs of both patients and their family members. Trivedi is also interested in improving the assessment and treatment of mental illnesses in primary care settings, and evaluating programs that aim to improve these important activities. In this role, she participates in large-scale evaluations of national and state health payment and delivery reform initiatives. Whicher held positions at the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute for Bioethics, and the Center for Medical Technology Policy. Her work has been published in a variety of reports and peer-reviewed journals, including Annals of Internal Medicine, Medical Care, PharmacoEconomics, Clinical Trials, and the Journal of Law, Medicine, & Ethics. She is particularly interested in time-series analysis, transfer/ multitask learning, and causal inference. The overarching goal of her research agenda is to develop the computational methods needed to help organize, process, and transform data into actionable knowledge.
Therefore asthma zones purchase 250 mcg fluticasone overnight delivery, social media usage remains a viable factor which helps determine whether consumers would increase their Internet use for ecommerce purposes asthma treatment singulair buy fluticasone 100 mcg on-line. On the other hand, the profound impacts of Internet on information flows generate concerns for governments, particularly China and Saudi Arabia. Specifically, risk perceptions regarding Internet security have been found to deter both new and experienced users from shopping online (Miyazaki and Fernandez 2001). For policymakers, findings would inform Internet controlling institutions whether censorship is supported by online purchasing consumers. Appropriate actions could help foster the e-commerce industry which would result in economic prosperity. For marketers, significance of social network usage on intention to purchase items online would justify spending on online community establishments. Participants were asked about their Internet usage, usage details, and attitudes towards Internet-related issues. Demographic information including age, gender, and country of residence were also collected. In order to predict the tendency to participate in e-commerce, I use the data on social network usage, attitudes towards government censorship, demographics, and the self-reported likeliness to increase Internet use if shopping, trading, and paying bills online are made easier. Overall, participants are representative in terms of country of residence, gender, and age. It follows that the cumulative: probability of tendency to shop, trade, and pay bills online for consumer can be denoted by 1 log log 1 2 3 1 2 3 (1) (2) 2 3. Specifically, this 2, where 1 methodology contrast the lower level of with the higher levels of. As the dependent variables are interval in nature, the general ordinal logistic regression model is simplified to the proportional odds model. In essence, the two response functions denoted by equations (1) and (2) are assumed to have the same slope parameters. Additionally, this particular simplification constrains the intercepts to gradually increase and (2) become: 1 1 2 3. That is, the incremental impact of an increase in the independent variables on the log odds or logits. Therefore, based on the proportional odds model, I estimate the following equation: (5), where are intercept terms. Social network usage of consumer, is proxied by his/her response to the question: "How often do you use social media. Notably, the Schwarz criterion not only punishes models with more parameters but also those attempting to fit large data sets. It is crucial to emphasize that the log odds of the lower response level is modeled against its higher response counterparts as shown in equations (3) and (4). Consequently, an increase in the cumulative logits (or log odds) would imply a decrease in the dependent variable. A positive parameter estimate for an exploratory variable therefore would suggest that an increase in that particular measure would result in a decrease in the response level. Results of parameter estimates show an inverse relationship between the log odds and social network usage (-0. Therefore, if an individual presently uses the internet more often to access social network, he/she would be more inclined to agree that he/she would use the internet more frequently if shopping, trading, and paying bills online are made easier. Remarkably, I found an association between preference for heightened government censorship and the tendency to use the internet for e-commerce purposes. This, in turn, strengthens the claim that social network usage and the extent to which the government controls the internet are the principal drivers. Interestingly, results reveal insignificant impact of country of residence on the tendency to use internet for financial purposes as suggested by their statistically insignificant estimated parameters (pvalue > 0. In other words, probability of using the internet more frequently if e-commerce experience is improved is indifferent for individuals living in different part of the world. Evidence for equal probability between males and females to engage in internet usage if the ease of e-commerce participation is encouraged supports the claim that internet fosters gender equality. More importantly, however, the author pointed out that growth rate of the Internet users varies across nations which results in a widening gap between rich and poor countries. Extant researches further claimed that this divide would impair competitive advantages of economically deprived countries as the Internet helps stimulating economic development (Hammond 2001; Ishaq 2001; Norris 2001; Steinmueller 2001).
This contribution therefore would demonstrate that disability management promotes a new vision of disability in society and especially in the economy asthma symptoms video purchase fluticasone 100 mcg free shipping. In particular asthma definition history discount fluticasone 100 mcg with amex, the objectives of this paper are: to spread the diversity and disability management; to encourage ethical values to build participatory and inclusive society and economy in which everyone can play a productive role; to facilitate this process by switching diversity and disability management. Subsequently, it emphasizes effects of disability on business viability: disabled stakeholder are employee or business operative, and customers or users. The paper discusses also effects of disability beyond corporate level and in the general economic system. Finally, the paper will reach a successful conclusion: despite hard-to-die prejudices, disability does not necessarily lead to corporate diseconomies. It has an interdisciplinary value because it originates from the combination of general economic, managerial, ethical etc. Some Italian studies highlight the economic impact of disability on the system, emphasizing the costs to the community, but also the benefits (Migliaccio, 2009 and 2015; Metallo et al. There are also specialist studies related to specific industrial sectors, such as the green economy and job creation for disabled people (Bruyйre and Filiberto, 2013). There are, finally, studies on the relationship between disability and economy of individual Nations or particular geographic areas (Mehrotra, 2013; Twigg, 2005; Shang, 2000). Interdisciplinary works that mix the different perspectives are rare: this pages offer a summary of this type providing a brief overview of the whole topic, focusing on the relationships between disability and economy. It is based primarily on the best Italian literature: interesting Italian papers will be mentioned later. One might think, for instance, of a mere disabled lender, of an investor or a shareholder who takes little part in the governance of the company, and so on. In these cases disability would have a negligible effect on the operation of the company, limited to those rare occasions in which the disabled and the organization get in touch. The latter should therefore only facilitate communication and remuneration processes and, in a wider sense, the exercise of rights related to the role of provider of either borrowed or own capital. The relationship between the company and the disabled person becomes more complicated, however, if the latter is an employee, a business operative or a customer/user. The disabled stakeholder as an employee or business operative Disability, in this case, could have a significant effect on corporate organization1. Constant participation in the productive activity is probably the trickiest option, if one considers the costs associated to it. First of all, there is the investment in appropriate facilities in order to overcome obstacles to effective participation. That is not always offset by an innovation-bound production culture, that could actually benefit any technological facility, preventing obsolescence and potential diseconomies. Training and updating policies could become more complex and expensive, and therefore not always viable. Also to be considered are healthcare needs related both to prevention and assistance, not to mention a higher amount of sick leave due to the disability itself and often regulated by law. Opportunities arising from disabled employees seem to be often overlooked, but are nonetheless significant and often able to compensate for the above mentioned additional costs. Those opportunities are analysed through the conceptual framework of the diversity management (Cuomo and Mapelli, 2007; Mauri and Visconti (Eds. The first introduced a new notion of diversity, which is no longer considered a threat due to the conflicts it may cause, but it is instead viewed as a stimulus towards the enrichment of the working 1 the Ibm and Asphi Foundations launched a special study programme about the integration of disabled people, providing useful recommendations about the subject. The research led to the publication of a set of guidelines, which are available for consultation (Fondazione Ibm, Fondazione Asphi Onlus, 2007). Greater attention to human resources, regardless of their features, leads to a creative, motivating and empowering environment, this way maximizing the overall result. Intentionally pursued by the company, diversity management has become necessary when the workforce are multiethnic, and the amalgamation multicultural. An embracing attitude, willingness to listen and appreciation of diversity, when shared and accepted, should improve business performance and promote corporate reputation, consolidating its social legitimacy. Of course the assimilation process will not be instantaneous, having to overcome initial prejudices and disruption, with potential damage to internal and external relations. While valuing diversity, disability management deals in particular with disabled people, and of course with the prevention of accidents which could cause disabilities and have financial consequences for the company involved (compensation, replacement of the injured employee(s) with consequent loss of skills already acquired, etc).
Few parents of school-aged children would be impressed to asthmatic bronchitis fever purchase 500 mcg fluticasone amex hear that the education ministry had a surplus in its budget thanks to asthma symptoms not asthma 500 mcg fluticasone otc its aggressive policy of school closures. At their best, such techniques amount to little more than shuffling money around to make the situation look better than it really is. They do nothing to resolve underlying problems, and may well make them worse by giving the comforting illusion that things are under control. For these reasons, financial management as such is not mentioned further in this chapter. In essence it can be said that there are two management processes going on at the same time in a defence ministry, namely: 139 Budgets, plans and programmes the construction and implementation of a balanced programme. These two imperatives are in conflict with each other, but the second is far more powerful than the first. It is more easily quantified than the former, which is really a matter of judgement. In general, equipment projects take time to complete, infrastructure tends to be fi xed and armed forces cannot be run on a hireand-fire basis to please accountants. Whilst the exact figure will vary from country to country, it is normal for around 75 per cent of defence expenditure to be committed before the financial year even begins. Any cuts that need to be made will therefore have to come from the remaining 25 per cent of the budget, whether or not the results make sense. Whilst exact practice varies, 30 to 40 per cent of a typical defence budget will be devoted to personnel costs. Perhaps another 30 to 35 per cent will be devoted to procurement and capital works, with the scope for savings in this area obviously being very limited. Recruitment can be frozen temporarily and the awarding of contracts can be delayed, but most of the manpower and capital costs will still have to be incurred. Thus the brunt of short-term savings will have to come from the remaining 25 to 30 per cent of the budget, which in essence covers current operational costs. Cutting training, recruiting or the provision of spares is unlikely to do any good, or even save any money, in the long run. It is worth adding that, in general, the smaller the defence budget, the higher the proportion allocated to manpower costs, which limits the room for manoeuvre even more. To repeat, an obsession with financial management is bad for a well-organised defence programme. Nonetheless, these are the limitations under which defence planners have to work, and the rest of the chapter will be concerned with how to make the best of the situation. The following three possible approaches can be considered: Cost-effectiveness calculations. The concept itself assumes that the both the money that is spent (the input) and the results of spending it (the output) are known. By examining the alternatives, the best input/output ratio can, in theory, be identified as providing the best value for money. There is little doubt that the idea of trying to relate inputs and outputs is sound, and that this must be the basis for comparative examinations of proposals to spend money. But any ambitious project, any foreign purchase, or anything that has not yet been produced always costs more than anticipated. A modern aircraft will probably cost three to four times as much to support and maintain during its life as it costs to buy, while savings made in one area, for example by closing a naval base, often show up as costs elsewhere, such as in social security payments. Even so, the uncertainties involved in predicting output are even greater, since it is impossible to know how equipment will perform until it is actually used. In practice it is tempting to assume that the cheapest solution is the most cost-effective, and this is often the way the decision is taken. Governments do not produce financial outputs,78 so the benefits of investment are almost always theoretical in nature,79 whereas changes in financial inputs are not only very visible, but also politically important. In practice, therefore, cost-effectiveness tends to be a way of cutting jobs and services under cover of a rational-sounding process. In spite of these limitations, there are some by-and-large ways of comparing inputs ands outputs, as discussed later in this chapter. This occurs for one of two main reasons: A political desire for a defence posture that cannot be afforded with the money made available. A political desire to hang on to defence roles and tasks that are no longer affordable.
Daughters and daughters-in-law most commonly take care of aging parents and in-laws asthma treatment ladder purchase fluticasone 500 mcg overnight delivery. These typically provide information asthma symptoms in 12 month old generic 250 mcg fluticasone amex, teach caregiver skills, and offer emotional support. Other programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, ease the financial burdens of older adults and their caregivers. Middle adults normally react with intensity and pain to the death of one or both parents. Even though the death of a parent is never welcome, some longterm adult caretakers express certain ambivalent feelings about the event. For instance, nearly 1 in 10 adults over the age of 65 has a child who is at least age 65. Over the decades, sibling rivalry may disappear and give way to peaceful relationships, while younger adults may feel the strain of trying to care for their aging and ailing parents, grandparents, and other relatives. Still, most young people report satisfying relationships with their older family members. Marriage and family People sometimes refer to older adult marriages and families as "retirement marriages" or "retirement families. Their previous marriages had lasted for more than 40 years, and they had high levels of marital satisfaction. The typical household income is less than in earlier stages of the lifespan, often translating into a decrease in standard of living. Widowhood, or the disruption of marriage due to death of the spouse, presents by far the most devastating event in older adult marriages. Nearly 3 percent of men ("widowers") and 12 percent of women ("widows") in the United States are widowed. In the 75 and older age group, approximately 25 percent of men and 66 percent of women are widowed. Widows and widowers commonly complain of the difficulty that they experience finding a new spouse or partner. This especially holds true for widows, who must contend with the social stigmas of being "old" and "asexual. Relationships with adult children the majority of older Americans-80 to 90 percent-have grown children, and enjoy frequent contact with them. Contrary to popular misconception, although the elderly enjoy these contacts they do not want to live with their grown children. Instead, they want to live in their own homes and remain independent for as long as possible. Typically, they would rather move into a private room in an assistedliving facility or group home than move in with their children. At any one time, only about 5 percent of adults over age 65 live in an institution. As for the quality of the relationship between older adults and their grown children, most research suggests that the elderly rate their experiences as positive. The potential for elderly abuse, or the neglect and/or physical and emotional abuse of dependent elderly persons, creates one very disturbing aspect of older adulthood. Neglect may take the form of withholding food or medications, not changing bed linens, or failing to provide proper hygienic conditions. Physical abuse may occur as striking, shoving, shaking, punching, or kicking the elderly. Estimates are that approximately 5 percent of American older adults receive abuse each year. The typical victim is an older adult who is in poor health and lives with someone else. In fact, the person who lives alone has a low risk of becoming a victim of this form of abuse. Both victims and abusers require treatment, whether individual, family, or group therapy.
In still others asthma treatment clinic purchase 500 mcg fluticasone fast delivery, the military may have been the servant of a political asthma meaning 250 mcg fluticasone, ethnic or religious group now out of power. The problem is complex enough in itself, but is made even more so by the slipperiness of the terminology used. The appearance by military officers before parliamentary committees to explain technical military issues. The appearance by military officers at press conferences and presentations of government policy in support of ministers. However, the militaries of many countries have at times had much larger roles than this, and some still feel entitled to a larger role today. And although there have been cases where desire for power or wealth has prompted military involvement, these cases are not numerous. More often, the military has seen their intervention as safeguarding the country in one form or another. But what gives an officer the idea that he has the right, let alone the duty, to intervene, even in a situation of great national danger? True military governments, in the full sense of that term, are almost nonexistent. In practice, the military, or more usually factions within a military, act in support of a political grouping during a political crisis. Even where the military seizes strategic control of the nation, as in Algeria or Pakistan, it does not rule alone and, indeed, could probably not have done so. For example, the French army split badly over the question of the future of the French colony of Algeria, and some 48 David Chuter of its most famous units staged a mutiny. Militaries that contemplate involving themselves in politics usually undergo wrenching internal divisions before they do so, and invariably do so afterwards. It appears to be an invariable rule that military intervention in the political process follows or results from a breakdown in the political process itself. Unfortunately, democracy, or at least the holding of competitive elections, is not a remedy, but frequently makes things worse. Particularly during times of political confl ict, there is space at the fringes for a more extreme party or grouping. Politicians who move to the centre, or seek openings with political opponents, will fi nd that they lose clarity and definition, and are elbowed aside by more extreme and less scrupulous colleagues. This kind of development is containable in a society where the differences between parties are mainly of an ideological nature and there is a reasonable orderly political structure incorporating all views. Political parties are often the product of personal, family or local loyalties, or they may give expression to religious or ethnic groups. In such instances the interests of one party may be impossible to reconcile with the interests of another. Particularly when the electoral process is not perfect, losing parties may well cry foul and either refuse to accept the poll result, or work to overthrow the government by extra-parliamentary means. In a family or clan-based political system, the successful party will often feel the need to reward its supporters with jobs and contracts, thus opening the way to charges of corruption. Moreover, parliamentary democracy, admirable in itself, contains a number of covert assumptions that must be met if it is to function as intended. Politics has to be seen as a process in which losing, unpleasant as that may be, is tolerated. A candidate may have said in public that a victory for his opponents will be a disaster for the country, but that must be seen as rhetoric, rather than being a genuine belief. One would rather have won, of course, but must now settle down with good grace to being the opposition. One may be from an ethnic group that greatly fears for its safety under the new government, or from a religious party that regards some of the policies of opponents as sinful. This is a particular problem in Africa where leaders are very insecure, irrespective of how fairly they have come to power. One survey from 1991 suggested that the 485 post-colonial African rulers faced a 59,4 per cent chance of coming to a sticky end. It can include being tortured to death on video as a political object lesson, as happened to Samuel Doe in Liberia in 1990. Similarly, there is an assumption that, in some form at least, parliament is putting into effect what the people want.
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