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In the eighteenth century and blood pressure levels in pregnancy purchase 17.5 mg zestoretic free shipping, above all blood pressure lyrics generic 17.5mg zestoretic otc, from around 1850, however, hospitals and surgery grew inseparable: they were destined to becom e utterly interdependent. In antiquity and during the Middle Ages, surgeons performed a multitude of m inor palliative services, such as lancing boils or bandaging wounds. Before 1850, however, serious surgical operations had to be short and sharp, although they were rarely sweet. Typically, they dealt with the exterior and the extrem ities while avoiding (except in the direst emergency, as with caesarian section) the abdomen and other body cavities and the central ner vous system. Roy P o r t e r the oldest proofs of surgical procedures are offered by trepaned (or trephined) skulls dating back to at least 1 0, 0 0 0 years ago. Trepaning - shown here in a reconstruction at the Leiden Museum - was probably a medical procedure designed to perm it the escape of evil spirits that were believed to be possessing the head of someone suffering from insan ity or epilepsy. It w as a wellrecognized operation described in Greek and other early surgical texts. Hospitals and Surgery 203 Early surgery in India and China Early surgery in India seems to have been conservative, although at an ancient date healers were couching for cataract and Ayurvedic healers developed exquisite skills in cosmetic surgery, especially remodelling noses (rhinoplasty). They would cut a leaf-shaped flap o f skin from the forehead, making sure th a t the end nearest the bridge o f the nose remained attached. And they pioneered a method o f lith o tomy (cutting for bladder stones) not introduced into Europe until the sixteenth century ad. The most im portant compilation o f Indian surgery was known as the Susrata Samhita (after Susrata, its author); its composition may be coterminous with the heyday o f Greek medicine. Amongst other things, the work lists some 121 different surgical instruments, including scissors, needles, lancets, catheters, tweezers, trochars, knives, and magnets for removing metal objects. Early Chinese surgery fo r its part developed the technique known as moxibustion, in which a small quantity o f combustible plant material was placed on the skin and set alight, causing a painful burn-blister, designed to serve as a counter-irritant. A bullock-driver with the British Army was captured by the forces of Tipu Sultan and had his nose and one hand cut off. They reported that the anonymous bricklayer had used a technique superior to anything they had ever seen. Bonesetting and amputations were performed from early times, although these involved severe risks of haemorrhage, infection, and shock. Egyptian medical papyri dating from the second m illennium bc refer to surgical procedures for abscesses and m inor tumours as well as disorders of the ear, eye, and teeth. The Hippocratic writings produced in Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries bc contain m uch that relates to surgery, including a treatise on wounds (De U lceribus) and another on head injuries (De C apitis Vulneribus). In the latter, five different types of injury are recognized and trepaning is described: fractures are to be treated by reduction and im m obilization with splints and bandages; the knife is to be used for excising nasal polyps and ulcerated tonsils; and cautery is rec ommended for haemorrhoids. In general, however, the picture that emerges is conservative: amputation of gangrenous tissue is accepted as a last resort. Hippocratic recom m endations for the treatment of wounds proved influential for centuries. The theory was that suppuration was indispensable for healing to take place, because it was believed that pus derived from viti ated blood. The Hippocratic Oath (see page 5 9) stated that physi cians should leave surgical interventions to others: this separation formed part o f a medical division o f labour, but surgery was also clearly viewed as an inferior trade, it being the w ork o f the hand rather than the head. Soranus of Ephesus wrote exten sively on obstetrics, discussing the use of the birthing-chair and giving instructions for difficult birth positions. W here the fetus was in a transverse position, A physician about to cauterize, from an eleventh-century m anuscript. Cautery is the treatm ent of wounds with a burning iron to seal them and to prevent fatal infection. The practice was comm on in the Middle Ages, was especially advocated by Islam ic texts, and rem ains common in Arab folk medicine to this day. Belief in the necessity of such painful treatm ents began to he challenged in the sixteenth century. This is not for want of skill; the figure is deliberately schem atic, m uch as would be found in a medical textbook today. Paul o f Aegina in the seventh century, and al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), the illustrious Islam ic physicians of the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, discussed cauterizing with a red-hot iron to stop bleeding. The Hippo cratic Corpus and Celsus had earlier recomm ended cautery as a means o f hinder ing putrefaction. In his great book, A ltasrif (C ollections), Albucasis discussed a multitude o f surgical operations, but placed the greatest faith in cautery.

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However hypertension medscape generic zestoretic 17.5mg online, on further discussion blood pressure 00 generic 17.5mg zestoretic overnight delivery, she reveals that her male partner is having difficulty maintaining erections, but she is hesitant to discuss trying nonpenetrative forms of sexual activity at the risk of upsetting her partner. Issues around relationship quality and communication can affect sexual function in couples, even if a "relationship problem" is not readily evident. These issues may be readily amenable to improvement with limited psychoeducational interventions or counseling. When addressing a new sexual complaint, a thorough history using a biopsychosocial approach should be undertaken, including assessment of any current or past psychiatric disorders; medication use and health problems; a history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; beliefs and attitudes regarding sex, menopause, and aging; and body image concerns. Particular attention should be paid to symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep problems, all of which are common during the menopause transition [37­48]. Providers should inquire about alcohol or drug use, as substance use disorders are also associated with sexual dysfunction [49]. Women presenting for a new sexual problem should be seen by their primary healthcare provider for a comprehensive physical examination, including a pelvic examination. Medical problems and medications should be reviewed for any that may potentially contribute to sexual dysfunction (Table 3), and treatment of the underlying condition or adjustments in medication regimens should be undertaken if possible. Buproprion is an antidepressant that appears to have few sexual side effects [55­58]. There is also evidence that bupropion [59­61] and, to a lesser extent, sildenafil [62], are effective for treating antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women, although some conflicting evidence exists [63, 64]. Screening for intimate partner violence should take place, and if positive, appropriate referrals and resources should be provided. Providers should recognize that women often have more than one sexual complaint; treatment should be individualized to target the primary problem, but should be supplemented by treatment of other problems as needed. Some major titles include Becoming Orgasmic [65], Getting the Sex You Want [66], Naked at Our Age [67], and Come as You Are [68]. A black box warning was recently added to testosterone products marketed to men after a longitudinal study suggested a 30% higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes [75], although this study has been criticized due to methodology concerns [76­79], and whether it is generalizable to women is unknown. Finally, it appears supraphysiological serum testosterone levels may be necessary to yield any benefit on sexual desire and arousal [80, 81]. The use of compounded testosterone products for transdermal use is on the rise, but these products are not regulated and amount of testosterone in the product can be highly inconsistent [82]. Hormone therapy (estrogen with or without progesterone) does not appear to have a significant impact on sexual function, with the exception of vaginal estrogen in women with genitourinary syndrome of menopause [83]. Future directions Much advancement has been made over the past 5 decades in our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction. Clarifying longitudinal patterns of change in sex and associated distress in large groups of midlife women will help us define what are normative changes over time versus what are "dysfunctions. The clinical effects are somewhat limited, there are notable side effects and medication interactions, and women taking the medication cannot use alcohol [173­176] There is evidence for directed masturbation [177­180] and sensate focus. Anxiety reduction techniques (systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy) if anxiety is co-occurring [181, 182] There is evidence for mindfulness-based approaches [184, 185] and cognitive-behavioral therapy/biofeedback [186­190] Flibanserin Female orgasmic disorder Psychological and behavioral interventions Sexual aids, such as vibrators [183] Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder Psychological and behavioral interventions Treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, if present. Understanding longitudinal patterns in sexual function is essential to ensuring that we can confidently educate our patients regarding what to expect as they grow older and to optimally tailor treatments for sexual dysfunctions. Second, we need to continue to develop safe and effective treatments for female sexual dysfunction, particularly for midlife and older women. Postmenopausal women have been excluded from many of the trials of pharmaceutical medications. Additionally, concerns about side effects and medication interactions are increased in an older population. Behavioral treatment approaches have shown promise for the treatment of several types of female sexual dysfunction. Future research should focus on ensuring that these behavioral interventions are optimized to meet the needs of midlife and older women, on targeting the outcomes that are most important in this population, and on exploring ways to disseminate behavioral interventions more widely. Finding ways to integrate these behavioral interventions into primary care and general gynecology practices will ensure that they reach the greatest number of women in need. In summary, sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent among midlife women and is associated with lower quality of life, and sexual function declines over the menopause transition for many women. Funding All organizations that funded relevant author research are mentioned in the Acknowledgements. None of these sponsors had any role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Thorp, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: quality of life and health burden, Value Health 12 (5) (2009) 763­772.


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The Food and Drug Administration proposed a rule to hypertension frequent urination safe 17.5mg zestoretic incorporate breast density reporting on mammograph reports for the first time blood pressure yang normal cheap zestoretic 17.5 mg on-line. Patient Navigation: Patient navigation can improve quality of cancer care, particularly in vulnerable populations. The organization also is working with Congress and federal agencies to help increase funding for patient navigation programs. Unless otherwise stated, the statistics and statements in this publication refer to invasive (not in situ) female breast cancer. These estimates were also partially adjusted for expected reporting delays using invasive factors. Age-specific estimates were calculated using the proportions of deaths that occurred in each age group during 2013-2017 applied to the overall 2019 estimate. Similar to incidence rates, mortality rates (or death rates) are defined as the number of people who die from cancer divided by the number of people at risk in the population during a given time period. Five-year survival statistics are based on cancer patients diagnosed during 2009-2015; 10-year survival rates are based on diagnoses during 2001-2015; and 15-year survival rates are based on diagnoses during 1998-2015. Probabilities of developing or dying from breast cancer were calculated using DevCan 6. While these estimates provide a reasonably accurate portrayal of the current cancer burden in the absence of actual data, they should be interpreted with caution because they are model-based projections that may vary from year to year for reasons other than changes in cancer occurrence. Breast Cancer-Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. Continued observation of the natural history of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ reaffirms proclivity for local recurrence even after more than 30 years of follow-up. Molecular characterization of basal-like and non-basal-like triplenegative breast cancer. Implications of Neoadjuvant Therapy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer. Estimation of the Number of Women Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Attributable to Long-term Changes in Risk Factor Distributions. Trends in stage at diagnosis for young breast cancer patients in the United States. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change. Multilevel Examination of Health Disparity: the Role of Policy Implementation in Neighborhood Context, in Patient Resources, and in Healthcare Facilities on Later Stage of Breast Cancer Diagnosis. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Time to a Breast Cancer Diagnosis: the Mediating Effects of Health Care Facility Factors. Diagnosis and surgical delays in African American and white women with early-stage breast cancer. Disparities in screening mammography services by race/ethnicity and health insurance. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950-2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities. Trends in Cancer Survival by Health Insurance Status in California From 1997 to 2014. The impact of follow-up type and missed deaths on population-based cancer survival studies for Hispanics and Asians. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: male breast cancer pooling project results. Male breast cancer: risk factors, biology, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Tobacco and alcohol in relation to male breast cancer: an analysis of the male breast cancer pooling project consortium. Effect of multiplicity, laterality, and age at onset of breast cancer on familial risk of breast cancer: a nationwide prospective cohort study. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58, 209 women with breast cancer and 101, 986 women without the disease. Risk of pancreatic cancer in breast cancer families from the breast cancer family registry.

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Very being transgender/gender non-conforming blood pressure chart order 17.5mg zestoretic with amex, have you ever you feel seeking held in a the Yes 34 blood pressure in psi discount 17.5 mg zestoretic free shipping. Because of being transgender/gender non-conforming, whichyouthe following experiences have you had in your interaction with Very being transgender/gender non-conforming, have of ever been arrested or held in a cell? Somewhat uncomfortableor prison with disrespect Officers been sent to jail Yes uncomfortable 35. Very[Go to Question 36] or Officers been sent to jail No [Go to Question 36] this question could be clarified to allow respondents to indicate if theyever been arrested or helda crime and were arrested/held anyway, or 34. Because of[Go have physically assaulted me Yes being transgender/gender non-conforming, have you were not committing in a cell? Officers to Question 38] Yes [Go have sexually assaulted me Officers to Question 38] if they were 36. Under six months Very comfortable to One [Go to Question 36] Yes to three years Six months to a year Somewhat comfortable Three toto Question No to One[Go five Neutral three years 38] Five toto five years Three ten uncomfortable Somewhat years Ten to ten years 36. Five uncomfortable Veryor more in jail Under more years Ten being transgender/gender non-conforming, have you when in the course of their transgender journey it happened In this question, we didofor six months a) why respondents were in jail, b)ever been arrested or held in a cell? Because not explore Six Yesmonths to a year and c) whether it was related toyears being transgender or gender non-conforming. To have better data for comparison to general population incarceration rates, it would be helpful to break out jail and prison. Prison Ten or more years Yes [Go to Question 36] data for the general population is much more readily available for comparison. Under six months Six months to a year One to three years Three to five years Five to ten years Ten or more years 37. If you were jailed or in prison, have you ever experienced any of the following because of being transgender/gender nonconforming? If the respondent indicated "no" but still answered question 39, we excluded their answers. Because you are transgender/gender non-conforming, have you been a target of harassment, discrimination or violence at When it came time to analyze the data, we realized that we could not distinguish whether respondents were self-reporting a transgender identity at school, or whether they were gender non-conforming, regardless of their identity today. Furthermore, it is possible that some answered "yes" even though they were not out or expressing any gender non-conformity at all. While some nuances Elementary were lost, these schoolnonetheless provided valuable information about school-based discrimination our respondents faced. An untested data Junior alternative would be, "While attending school, did you (a) openly identify as transgender, (b) express gender non-conformity, or (c) did high/middle not openly identify as transgender or express gender non-conformity. Have you attended school at any level (elementary school or higher) as a transgender/gender non-conforming person? Not applicable Yes No Harassed or bullied by teachers or staff Physically assaulted or attacked by students Physically assaulted or attacked by teachers or staff Sexually assaulted or attacked by students Sexually assaulted or Yes attacked by teachers or staff Expelled, thrown out, or No denied enrollment Not applicable. Not out as transgender or gender nonconforming at that point Did not attend such a school 37. Because you are transgender/gender non-conforming, have you been a target of harassment, discrimination or violence at school? Not out as transgender or gender nonconforming at that point Did not attend such a school Elementary school Junior high/middle From school other inmates From correctional officers or staff High School College 38. Graduate or Yes [Go professional to Question 39] No school [Go to Question 41] Like Question 30, the "not applicable" responses here may have been confusing. We treated "did not attend such a school" and "not I had to leave school because the harassment was so bad. I had Elementary I lost or part of get question altogether, but of the analysis for that could not the financial aid or scholarships. However, it did not distinguish between K-12 and college/technical/graduate school, though some questions like housing and scholarships are more applicable to higher education. For simplicity, it might have been better to separate these questions by school level.

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The generic term polypeptide is used to arteria appendicularis buy 17.5mg zestoretic visa designate many amino acids linked together prehypertension young adults cheap 17.5mg zestoretic overnight delivery. The terms polypeptide and protein are often used interchangeably and there is no set rule for when each should be used. Some authorities suggest an amino acid cut off of 50 amino acids, anything less than 50 is called a polypeptide and anything over 50, a protein. Others use a molecular weight cut off with 10, 000 being the division between polypeptides and proteins. Whether we call them proteins or polypeptides, it is of no real importance; they will still do their job no matter what we call them. Notice that the end amino acids in the polypeptide will have either an unbonded amine group or an unbonded carboxyl group. These ends are designated the amino- or N-Terminus and the carboxyl- or C-Terminus, respectively. The image above represents a dehydration synthesis reaction between 2 amino acids to form a peptide bond. Peptide bonds form between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amine group of another. As mentioned above, almost all living things (except for a few rebellious strains of bacteria) contain proteins made from 20 amino acids. If you were given 20 packages of these blocks, each package containing a different color, you could start producing Lego proteins. Some of your proteins may contain only a few Legos while 71 others may contain thousands. This is the potential that our cells have at their fingertips to produce the molecules to carry out the many functions of proteins. Protein Structure By now you should be starting to realize the importance of proteins to the proper functioning of the various systems in our bodies. What is it about proteins that allows them to perform all of these different tasks? The answer to this question can be summed up in three words: shape, shape, and shape. As you can imagine from the many functions of proteins, they have very complex shapes. If we think of proteins as cars, we all quickly understand that having the wheels on the bottom of the car and a steering wheel to guide the car are pretty important standard equipment. In studying the shape of proteins, biochemists have dissected and broken them down into 4 levels of complexity or structure. As we move from the 1st to the 4th level of structure, the preceding level adds to the next. Primary structure: the primary structure of the protein is the sequence of the amino acids in its polypeptide chain. If proteins were popcorn stringers made to decorate a Christmas tree, the primary structure of a protein is the sequence in which various shapes and varieties of popped corn are strung together. The primary structure of a protein is maintained by covalent, peptide bonds connecting the amino acids together. The figure below shows the primary structure of insulin, the first protein to be sequenced. Notice on the right side of the figure the position of each amino acid is numbered. Your mutual friend recognizes that you might be compatible and sets you up on a date. Now the hard part is over and the two individuals go on a date, yada yada yada, and emerge as one couple! In other words a single enzyme can serve as a catalyst for one reaction after another. In the example above the matchmaker could go on to set up other dates between other young men and women. Enzymes are quite specific and so a single enzyme is able to catalyze a reaction between certain reactants (substrates) but not others, which is why we need so many different enzymes. An example that you are familiar with is converting a common disaccharide, sucrose, to two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. The enzyme that is involved in this reaction would be unable to convert the disaccharide lactose to the monosaccharides glucose and galactose.

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There were no significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse events arteria haemorrhoidalis media cheap 17.5 mg zestoretic with amex. Thus heart attack 85 blockage buy generic zestoretic 17.5 mg, it is important for users of this report to fully appreciate the nuances of the methodologies employed, as well as the strengths and limitations of this approach. In addition, we included 11 published systematic reviews that incorporated over 200 additional primary articles. It proved challenging because many of the studies contained substantial heterogeneity and their findings were inconsistent for the health outcomes examined. In contrast, cohort studies of postmenopausal women are consistent in showing no association of calcium intake with the risk of breast cancer. For prostate cancer, three of four cohort studies found significant associations between higher calcium intake (>1500 or >2000 mg/day) and increased risk of prostate cancer, compared to men consuming lower amount of calcium (500-1000 mg/day). Strengths of this Report the strengths of this report lie in the wide range of topics covered, critical appraisal, detailed documentation, transparent methods to assess the scientific literature, and an unbiased selection of studies. The intent was to perform a thorough and unbiased systematic review of the literature base on available evidence as defined by prespecified criteria. Once the review process began, input from experts in the field was sought to clarify technical questions during the literature review process. A quality rating as detailed in Chapter 2 (Methods section) was assigned for each primary study and systematic review, and incorporated into the data summaries section of the report. On the basis of this work, a sound foundation has been created which will facilitate rapid and efficient future updates as needed. Details concerning the process of question formulation, selection of health outcomes of interest, justification for study selection criteria, methods used for critical appraisals of studies and quality rating, and summary of results are described fully in the Methods chapter. This approach is critical to the establishment of a transparent and reproducible process. Furthermore, important variables that affect vitamin D status such as life stages, latitude of the study locale, background diet and skin pigmentation are documented in this review. As mentioned previously, it is difficult to evaluate nutritional adequacy because there are no methods currently available to quantify the contribution of endogenous vitamin D synthesis resulting from sun exposure on an individual or group level. In addition, it is generally accepted that estimating intake by dietary assessments is not a valid indicator of vitamin D status, because there are limitations in the completeness of nutrient databases for both food and dietary supplements vitamin D content and the rapidly changing landscape of vitamin D food fortification has not yet been captured in either instruments used to assess intake and the databases used to analyze the data. These factors limit the applicability of the findings to other life stages and other racial groups. Relying on dietary assessment to gauge calcium intake is limited by the confounding effect of vitamin D status on the efficiency of calcium absorption and uncertainties in the calcium content of many foods due to the recent trend in nutrient fortification of food, limited ability of current dietary assessment tools to distinguish among fortified and unfortified foods and the lag in updating nutrient databases with current nutrient information. Using previous systematic reviews risks propagating deficiencies and errors242 introduced in those reviews. It should also be stressed that a well-performed systematic review does not necessarily imply that the body of evidence for a particular outcome of interest is of high quality. While some systematic reviews assessed the quality of the individual studies, the methods used varied. Any systematic review is limited by the quality of the primary studies included in the review. Unless the methods used to assess the quality of the primary studies is transparent and the details made available for examination, it would be difficult to reliably determine the validity of the conclusions. Also, relying on existing systematic reviews alone could have potentially precluded us from identifying all relevant studies because those systematic reviews might have addressed somewhat different questions and had a different scope from this review. As a consequence, if those studies had reported other (than bone health) outcomes that were of interest, those studies would not have been included in this review. As there is no consensus on how to assess the quality of the nutrition observational studies, we created a quality checklist based on a newly published reporting standard for observational studies32 and nutrition reporting items that we believe should be considered in quality assessment. This checklist, however, has not been calibrated and the intra- and interrater variability have not been assessed. We should also remind the readers that impeccable study reporting does not equate study validity.

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There at the correctional facility high blood pressure medication and xanax purchase zestoretic 17.5mg mastercard, I was harassed arteria peronea magna buy 17.5mg zestoretic with visa, attacked, spit on, verbally abused by other youth and staff, and sexually abused. For older age categories, our respondents were in school at rates two to three times higher than the general population. For 25-44 year olds, 7% of the general population was in school, whereas 22% of our sample were in school. For 45-54 year olds, the general population figure was 2% compared to 5% of our respondents. It also shows a pattern for some of returning to school later in life to finish or acquire diplomas or degrees, perhaps as an attempt to increase employment opportunities in the face of discrimination. Because of these findings related to the percentage of people in school at different ages, we do not believe online bias11 is the only reason our sample has such high educational attainment figures. Had these attainment figures been due solely to online bias, we would have expected a higher rate of students in the 18-24 age category exceeding that (or at least matching that) of the general population. Thus, we believe that transgender people reported higher rates of formal education than the general population largely due to returning to school at later ages (ages 25 and above). I was surprised and pleased to find that among my younger friends (who are typically college-aged), gender and sexuality seems almost to be a non-issue. Respondents who left school for financial reasons experienced lower levels of educational attainment overall. This is most notable in the percentage of respondents who reported their highest education level was some college. Sixty-one percent (61%) of those who had to leave school due to financial reasons related to transition started college but did not finish it. This contrasts with the rest of our sample (who did not leave school for financial reasons) for which 39% started but did not finish college. This is also reflected in the percentages of people who achieved college and graduate degrees. A combined 30% of people who left school for financial reasons ultimately received a college (19%) or graduate degree (11%) as opposed to a combined total of 49% of those who did not have to leave school for financial reasons. Those who had to leave school due to harassment were less likely to graduate from high school, college or graduate school. Forty-nine percent (49%) of those who did not have to leave school due to harassment went on to receive a college or graduate degree, whereas 30% of those who did have to leave school achieved the same (either returning to school later or switching to a new school in order to graduate). Those who had to leave school due to harassment were twice as likely (9%) to not graduate from high school as opposed to those who did not (4%). We found that negative experiences in school were tied to income disparities later in life. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of those making under $10, 000 per year at the time of the survey had been harassed, physically assaulted, sexually assaulted or expelled from school. Comparatively, a smaller number (55%) of those with high incomes, making $100, 000 per year or more, experienced this mistreatment. We also compared current income for those who reported no problems in school (either because they did not experience bias or because they did not express a transgender identity or gender nonconformity at school) with those who did experience mistreatment at school. Forty-six percent (46%) of those who reported no mistreatment at school reported making over $50, 000/year at the time of the survey, whereas 30% of those who experienced mistreatment in school were in the same income range. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of the general population makes $50, 000/year or more, meaning our respondents who were mistreated in school are about half as likely to be in that range than the general population. Shockingly, our sample is 4-5 times more likely than the general population to have a household income of less than $10, 000/ year at each level. Our respondents were 2-3 times less likely than the general population to be making $100, 000/year or more at the same levels of educational attainment. For example, 5% of our respondents who had a high school diploma make $100, 000/year or more as compared to 15% of the general population, and 20% of our respondents who had a college degree make $100, 000 or more as compared to 46% of the general population. Fifteen percent (15%) of our sample reported having been incarcerated at some point in their lives, but 22% of those who were physically assaulted in school were incarcerated at some point in their lives. Further, 24% of those who were sexually assaulted in school were incarcerated at some point in their lives. We found that those who were mistreated in school were more likely than others to report doing sex work or other work in the underground economy such as drug sales. For example, 32% of those who were physically assaulted at school also reported doing sex work or other work in the underground economy as compared to 14% of those who were not assaulted.


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