The attacks may be either kinesiogenic (provoked by rapid movements) medicine gabapentin 300mg capsules buy aggrenox caps 25/200mg cheap, in which case they usually involve choreoathetosis medicine pouch cheap aggrenox caps 200mg without a prescription, or nonkinesiogenic (provoked by caffeine, alcohol, or fatigue). Spasmodic contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle causes excessive blinking and involuntary eye closure. It can often be accompanied by ocular foreign-body sensation and be ameliorated by distracting maneuvers, and is worse at rest or in bright light. There may be involuntary clonic eye closure, tonic narrowing of the palpebral fissure, or difficulty opening the eyes (eye-opening apraxia, p. Oromandibular dystonia affects the perioral muscles and the muscles of mastication. In a condition named Meige syndrome blepharospasm is accompanied by dystonia of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and neck. Cervical dystonia may involve head rotation (torticollis), head tilt to one side (laterocollis), or flexion or extension of the neck (anterocollis, retrocollis), often accompanied by tonic shoulder elevation or head tremor. It may be difficult to distinguish nondystonic from dystonic head tremor; only the latter can be improved by antagonistic maneuvers. It is characterized by abnormal, stereotyped movements of the mouth, jaw, and tongue (orofacial dyskinesia), sometimes accompanied by respiratory disturbances, grunting, and thrusting movements of the trunk and pelvis. These agents also rarely induce tardive craniocervical dystonia, myoclonus, and tremor. Chorea Choreiform movements are irregular, abrupt, and seemingly randomly occurring, and usually affect the distal parts of the limbs. In mild chorea, the hyperkinetic movements may be integrated in voluntary movements, such as stroking the hair. A combination of choreiform and (distal) dystonic movements is termed choreoathetosis. Huntington disease, an autosomal dominant disorder, is the best-known cause of chorea (p. Motor Function Myoclonus Myoclonus consists of involuntary, brief, sudden, shocklike muscle contractions producing visible movement. It has a variety of causes and may be focal, segmental, multifocal, or generalized. Its cortical, subcortical, or spinal origin can be determined by neurophysiological testing. Attacks of myoclonus may be spontaneous or may be evoked by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli (reflex myoclonus) or by voluntary movement (postural myoclonus, action myoclonus). Hemiballism (Ballism) Ballism consists of violent flinging movements of the limbs due to involuntary contraction of the proximal limb muscles, and usually affects only one side of the body (hemiballism). Drug-induced Dyskinesias Involuntary movements of various kinds may be induced by numerous drugs, most prominently L-dopa and neuroleptic drugs including phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, benzamides, and metoclopramide, all of which affect dopaminergic transmission (p. Myoclonus of variable intensity may occur normally as a person falls asleep (sleep myoclonus). Hiccups (singultus) are myoclonic movements of the diaphragm and normally cease spontaneously. The myoclonus that occurs in the waking phase after syncope is sometimes mistaken for an epileptic seizure. Essential myoclonus is a rare hereditary disease characterized by persistent, very brief, multifocal myoclonic movements, accompanied by dystonia. Asterixis consists of brief, irregular flapping movements of the outstretched arms or hands due to sudden pauses in the train of afferent impulses to muscles ("negative" myoclonus). In toxic or metabolic encephalitis, it almost always occurs together with myoclonus. Tics Tics are rapid, irregular, involuntary movements (motor tics) or utterances (vocal tics) that interrupt normal voluntary motor activity.
Additional studies with young children nature medicine discount 200 mg aggrenox caps amex, teenagers medications high blood pressure aggrenox caps 200mg, college students, and adults revealed that other external events, such as directives, surveillance, deadlines, threats of punishment, and negative performance feedback also decrease intrinsic motivation. Deci and Ryan (1985) interpreted these results in terms of satisfaction versus thwarting of the basic needs for competence and autonomy. Specifically, people tend to interpret rewards, directives, deadlines, and threats as controllers of their behavior, which thwarts their need for autonomy; in contrast, people tend to experience choice and acknowledgment as support for their autonomy. Further studies examined the general interpersonal context or ambience of particular settings such as classrooms or workgroups. In fact, authority figures such as doctors, parents, and coaches have also been found to influence the motivation and behaviors of their patients, children, and athletes, depending on the degree to which they are autonomy supportive versus controlling. Finally, Deci and Ryan (2000) pointed out that external events such as rewards, feedback, and deadlines can be interpreted differently by different people. That is, many external events such as rewards have both an aspect that controls behavior and one that conveys positive competence information. If the controlling aspect is more salient, it pressures people toward specific outcomes and undermines their intrinsic motivation. However, if the informational aspect is more salient, it affirms their competence and enhances their intrinsic motivation. Whether the controlling or informational aspect is more salient depends on both the situation and the person. When the interpersonal context within which rewards or feedback are administered is generally autonomy supportive, the informational aspect of the rewards or feedback tends to be more salient. For example, studies have shown that, although monetary rewards typically diminish intrinsic motivation, they can maintain or enhance it if they are administered in an autonomy-supportive context. Thus, individual differences can lead different people to experience the same external event differently, so the event will have different effects on their intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). To summarize, intrinsic motivation flourishes when people are able to satisfy their needs for competence and autonomy while doing interesting tasks. Finally, people differ in their tendencies to interpret events and environments in ways that support versus thwart need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. Because intrinsic motivation is relevant in many walks of life and leads to more positive outcomes than extrinsic motivation, it seems important to support the autonomy and competence of our children, students, clients, employees, and patients. A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Jung believed that the introvert directs the libido inward because of inferiority feelings, an idea reminiscent of Alfred Adler. Particularly during stressful periods, introverts tend to withdraw into themselves, to avoid others, and to be self-absorbed. Introverts are frequently reserved and difficult to get to know, tend to bottle up their emotions, and need privacy. In contrast, extraverts orient primarily to the outer world, focusing their perceptions and judgments on people and things. Extraverts draw energy from other people and external experiences; tend to express their emotions; need relationships more than privacy; and are usually friendly, talkative, and easy to get to know. Extraverts may seem shallow to introverts, whereas introverts may seem withdrawn to extraverts. The other three are sensing-intuition (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judgment-perception (J-P). A second path to knowledge is through logical and critical reasoning of experienced phenomena. By introversion, Jung meant a turning inward of the libido (psychic energy), whereas extraversion referred to a directing outward of the libido. Psychology examines the physical, cognitive, personality, social, emotional, and moral aspects of human development.
Spinocerebellar ataxias symptoms nausea fatigue cheap 200mg aggrenox caps mastercard, adrenoleukodystrophy symptoms 9 days post ovulation buy discount aggrenox caps 200mg on line, endocrine diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyelopathy, vitamin B12 deficiency (funicular myelosis). The disease takes a malignant course, with major disability within 5 years, in fewer than 5 % of patients. Complaints of pain, paresthesiae, abnormal fatigability, or episodic disturbances are often, by their nature, difficult to objectify. Clinical examination may reveal no abnormality because of the episodic nature of the disease itself. Low amplitude of evoked potentials, on the other hand, often indicates a pathological process of another type. Circulating antibodies to various components of myelin can also be detected (for abbreviations, see below1). Lesions develop in myelin sheaths (which are extensions of oligodendroglial cell membranes) and in axons when the inflammatory process outstrips the capacity of repair mechanisms. Axonal damage seems to be the main cause of permanent neurological deficits, as dystrophic axons apparently cannot be remyelinated. Medications, physical, occupational, and speech therapy, social, psychological, and dietary counseling, and mechanical aids. The possible benefits of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transplantation for remyelination, and of growth factors and immunoglobulins for the promotion of endogenous remyelination, are currently under investigation in both experimental and clinical studies. A focus of bacterial infection of the brain is called a brain abscess, or cerebritis in the early stage before a frank abscess is formed. Pus located between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane is called a subdural empyema, while pus outside the dura is called an epidural abscess. The epidemiological pattern of infection may be sporadic, endemic or epidemic, depending on the pathogen. Clinical Manifestations Meningitis and encephalitis rarely occur as entirely distinct syndromes; they usually present in mixed form (meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis). Neonates and children commonly manifest failure to thrive, fever or hypothermia, restlessness, breathing disorders, epileptic seizures, and a bulging fontanelle. The elderly may lack fever but frequently have behavioral abnormalities, confusion, epileptic seizures, generalized weakness, and impairment of consciousness ranging to coma. Immunodeficient patients commonly have fever, headache, stiff neck, and drowsiness in addition to the manifestations of their primary illness. Meningitic syndrome is characterized by fever, severe, intractable headache and backache, photophobia and phonophobia, nausea, vomiting, impairment of consciousness, stiff neck, and hyperextended posture, with opisthotonus or neck pain on flexion. Painful neck stiffness is due to (lepto)meningeal irritation by infectious meningitis, septicemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, neoplastic meningitis, or other causes. Isolated neck stiffness not caused by meningitis (meningism) may be due to cervical disorders such as arthrosis, fracture, intervertebral disk herniation, tumor, or extrapyramidal rigidity. Papilledema is usually absent; when present, it indicates intracranial hypertension (p. The neurological signs may be preceded by limb pain (myalgia, arthralgia), a slight increase in body temperature, and malaise. Brain stem encephalitis produces ophthalmoplegia, facial paresis, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, and hearing loss. Myelitis presents with severe local pain, paraparesis, paresthesiae, or some combination of these. The treatment strategy is initially based on the clinical and additional findings.
Because this clearly is unethical medications voltaren trusted 25/200 mg aggrenox caps, psychologists sometimes must rely on correlational evidence and cannot provide scientific evidence for some cause-and-effect theories medicine overdose buy 200mg aggrenox caps free shipping. Scientists construct theories out of a collection of building blocks, and research studies and their results provide these blocks. Theories fall if the cumulative evidence does not support their construction, and theories built on a solid foundation of supporting evidence survive. A single study, by itself, rarely is considered a sufficient basis on which to accept or discard a theory. Replication (producing duplicate studies) and cross-validation (conducting studies by defining variables in different ways or using different types of samples) are necessary for the scientific community to accept the validity of a scientific theory. They also provide evidence for refining theories, to delimit more carefully conditions under which a theory holds true. Probably one of the easiest research methodologies is the archival method, which involves seeking information from public and private records, such as newspapers or diaries. For example, research on sexism in the media could be based on content analyses of randomly selected newspapers, magazines, and radio and television programs. Another type of scientific method involves an in-depth case study of a particular individual. The systematic observation method can be extended from the case study of an individual to the study of entire groups. For example, naturalistic observations might be made of children as they play in a school yard or of wild animals as they roam their natural habitats. Naturalistic observation data collected in real-life settings generally are less artificial than data collected under carefully controlled laboratory settings, so generalizing results with the former may be more valid. However, the data are only of a descriptive or correlational nature, so causeand-effect conclusions cannot be made. An alternative research strategy is the use of surveys, questionnaires, and structured interviews. Subjects knowingly participate as research participants and provide the data in response to specific questions. The quality of the data depends on the cooperation and honesty of the subjects, as well as on the quality of the questions asked. Survey techniques allow for the collection of large amounts of data under fairly standardized conditions. Only an experiment in which the researcher manipulates the causal variable (the independent variable) and observes the effect on the affected variable (the dependent variable) can lead to conclusions about causality. It is crucial that all other variables that may affect the dependent variable (extraneous or nuisance variables) be controlled for so that results can be unambiguously interpreted. Derogatis in the mid-1970s to measure psychological symptoms and psychological distress. It is designed to be appropriate for use with individuals from the community, as well as individuals with either medical or psychiatric conditions. Comparable dimension scores on the three instruments correlate very highly with each other. These investigations have repeatedly demonstrated the instruments to be valid and consistent as measures of psychological symptoms and emotional distress. The scales have also repeatedly shown high and selective convergence with other tests that measure the same constructs and have been appropriately uncorrelated with other tests that measure distinct and unrelated constructs. The instruments have been employed in diagnostic and treatment applications concerning mental health status in an extensive range of medical conditions including cardiovascular, oncologic, endocrine, neurologic, and surgical, as well as with psychiatric disorders. Perhaps the best-known real-life example of selective attention is one in which a person is capable of listening to a single voice in a room full of people talking at the same time, while apparently being oblivious to all other conversations. This instance of auditory selective attention was described by Cherry (1953) when he noted that while a person may have appeared to be selectively attending to only his or her own conversation while ignoring all other voices, that person sometimes noticed important stimuli, such as his or her own name.
Furthermore treatment thesaurus discount aggrenox caps 200 mg without prescription, they form an explicit hierarchy medicine 3x a day discount aggrenox caps 200mg mastercard, as the notion of levels would suggest. The phenomenographic approach is radically contentoriented because deriving categories of description in relation to various contents of learning is considered to be the main task. The different categories may or may not form a hierarchy in a particular case (of content). Learning theory consists of principles that summarize the processes that produce these changes. Learning principles are based upon experimental observations, commonly from the laboratory. Learning theory has two main purposes: (1) to explain existing laboratory findings and aid the discovery of new findings, and (2) to provide plausible accounts of more complex phenomena that occur outside of the laboratory, where well-controlled observations are impossible to obtain. The experience of nonhumans can be better controlled, which allows the findings to be attributed to events that take place within the experiment. Although the learning theorist remains open to the possibility that some principles may be unique to humans, biology and neuroscience suggest that basic learning principles are common to most species with which we share an extensive evolutionary history and a common set of physiological processes. The central goal of the learning theorist is to develop an account of the effects of the individual environment that is as powerful as the principle of natural selection. The search for this principle-a principle of reinforcement-began with the research of Edward L. Skinner (1938) and Similarities and Differences Between the Two Alternative Approaches As pointed out earlier, within both a neo-Piagetian and a phenomenographic approach, learning is conceptualized as a transition between qualitatively different forms of thought and is thus seen as a miniature development. In a normal school situation it seems quite reasonable to expect that, at the time of a particular observation, different students have advanced to different levels. The outcome of learning will thus be described in terms of qualitative differences. Furthermore, in relation to both ways of describing qualitative differences in the outcome of learning, some correlates have been found in the differing ways in which students set about the learning tasks that account for those differences. Biggs has identified three independent dimensions in study process: utilizing, internalizing, and achieving. In spite of these obvious similarities, there is an important difference between the two sets of studies that has to do with the role of content. As the actual content varies in different instances, the realization of categories also will, of course, vary on a concrete level. Two related experimental procedures are used in the study of reinforcement-classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning. Both procedures present the learner with a stimulus that already elicits behavior, generally as a result of natural selection, as with the elicitation of salivation by food. In the classical procedure, the eliciting stimulus is presented after some relatively neutral stimulus, such as a tone or light. In the operant procedure, the eliciting stimulus is presented after some relatively arbitrary behavior, such as pressing a lever. In both procedures, the eliciting stimulus brings about a change in the way the environment affects behavior on future occasions. For example, in the classical procedure the tone comes to evoke salivation, whereas in the operant procedure, the sight of the lever comes to evoke lever pressing (as well as salivation). When these experiences change behavior, the eliciting stimulus is said to act as a reinforcer. The first condition is contiguity, and was discovered with both the classical and operant procedures. If the eliciting stimulus is to serve as a reinforcer, it must occur within a very brief time interval (a matter of seconds at most) after the event upon which it is dependent-a stimulus in the classical procedure or a response in the operant procedure (Gormezano & Kehoe, 1981). If the putative reinforcer is delayed, whatever other stimuli or responses may have intervened are affected. The second condition is discrepancy, which was not identified until the mid-twentieth century (Kamin, 1969). Laboratory research indicates that not only must a brief interval elapse before the reinforcer occurs; but also the reinforcer must evoke a change in ongoing behavior.
More specifically treatment of gout order aggrenox caps 200mg on-line, credibility depends on objective indicators of relevant expertise medicine 54 543 purchase aggrenox caps 25/200mg, perceived reliability as an information source, lack of selfinterest in the issue, warmth and friendliness, confident and forceful delivery of the message, and considerable so- cial support from others. Furthermore, actively role-playing a previously unacceptable position increases its acceptability to the receiver. The trait-factor approach to social influence is weak both logically and empirically in situations in which two or more individuals are constantly interacting. The dynamic-interdependence view of social influence posits that influence exists in relationships, not in individuals; that is, a person cannot be an influencer if there is no influencee (Johnson & Johnson, 2003). For influence to be constructive, it must occur in a cooperative (not competitive) context. In a cooperative context, influence is used to maximize joint benefits and promote the achievement of mutual goals. Resistance is the psychological force aroused in an individual that keeps him or her from accepting influence. When individuals work together to achieve mutual goals, social influence is inevitable. They must influence and be influenced by each other, each modifying and adjusting his or her behavior to respond to what the other person is doing. The speed of conversation, the attitudes expressed, and the phrasing of messages are all influenced by the others with whom one is interacting. Goals cannot be established, communication cannot take place, leadership cannot exist, decisions cannot be made, and conflicts cannot be resolved unless there is mutual influence. The degree of influence is dynamic in that it constantly changes as the individuals make progress in obtaining their goals, as their costs (in energy, emotion, time, etc. If the individuals make progress toward achieving the goals, the costs of working together are low, and no other relationships are as rewarding, then the ability of the individuals involved to influence each other increases. The more an individual wants a specific resource, the more power the people who control the resource have over him or her. Each of these sources (reward, coercion, legitimacy, referent capacity, expertise, information) enables one to influence others. A power/interaction model of interpersonal influence: French and Raven thirty years later. Lack of social interaction, or social isolation, not only is a painful experience but also can negatively impact child development. For infants and young children, lack of interaction with a primary caretaker can lead to marked delays in cognitive, socioemotional, linguistic, and motoric development. Furthermore, dysfunctional parent-child interaction patterns can contribute to child social incompetence and social isolation. For school-age children and adolescents, peer interaction becomes an increasingly important socializing agent that provides them with opportunities for social, emotional, and cognitive development. Through interpersonal interaction, children develop the skills of collaboration, perspective taking, empathy, and social competence, which help to promote prosocial behavior and decrease inappropriate, immature, or annoying behavior. Social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, low selfesteem and alienation, negative self-concept and powerlessness, increased shyness and anger, decreased creativity, depression, social and academic difficulties, and in some cases delinquent behavior and violence. Recent studies suggest that social anxiety may be a precursor to social isolation and that the loneliness that accompanies social isolation uniquely contributes to more severe emotional problems. Additionally, distinctions have been drawn between children who are deliberately isolated by their peers because of cognitive immaturity and inappropriate behavior and children who are passively or anxiously withdrawn. Different characteristics and outcomes may be related to these two dimensions of social isolation, which would also have implications for treatment. Although early developmental research suggested that many withdrawn children outgrow their isolate behaviors, there is evidence that for some children, social isolation is an enduring experience. For these children, the negative effects of social isolation may persist beyond childhood, leading to maladjustment in adolescence and adulthood, including poor educational attainment, occupational status, and psychological well-being. Socially isolated children seldom initiate contact with others or respond to the invitations of others. These children tend to be ignored and neglected by their peers due to their lack of a conspicuous presence.
MacLean (1990) emphasizes that septal stimulation in humans can produce pleasurable sensations and in animals can elicit social grooming as well as genital tumescence medications information proven 200 mg aggrenox caps. Thalamocingulate Division this region represents the phylogenetically newest subdivision of the limbic system treatment 0 rapid linear progression aggrenox caps 200mg. Lesions of this region in nonhuman mammals often produce social apathy; even mothers will neglect their young (MacLean, 1990). In addition to these social functions, the cingulate, particularly its anterior extent, is believed to be important in selective attention and pain (MacLean, 1990). Definition and Anatomy Although there is no clear consensus, the following regions are generally considered part of the limbic system: the cortical structures include the cingulate gyrus, subcallosal gyrus, hippocampus, and olfactory cortex. Subcortical regions include the amygdala, septum, pellucidum, epithalamus (habenula), anterior thalamic nuclei, hypothalamus, and parts of the basal ganglia. In addition, several closely linked cortical structures that appear important in emotional behavior are also considered part of this circuit and are often referred to as paralimbic. These regions include the anterior temporal polar cortex, medial-posterior orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex (Mesulam & Mufson, 1982). Evidence for and Against the Limbic System Construct Extensive research suggests that limbic structures are important in emotional behavior. Much of the clinical evidence for the unified network concept has come from studies of psychomotor seizures (Jasper, 1964), although recent functional imaging studies in humans also support the notion of a limbic system concept (George et al. Critics of the limbic system construct (Kotter & Meyer, 1992; LeDoux, 1996) point out that no two authorities can agree on which structures should be included in the limbic system. Also, limbic structures are connected with virtually all areas of the brain, so critics argue that one should then consider the whole brain the limbic system. Moreover, if the limbic system is defined functionally as that part of the brain involved in emotion, evidence suggests that the neocortex may be important in the regulation and recognition of emotions and that limbic regions such as the hippocampus and cingulate are important in functions other than emotion, such as memory, cognition, and selective attention. Conclusions Extensive preclinical and clinical observations have suggested that the limbic system structures are critical in emotional behavior. Limbic structures have also been found to be important in social behavior, cognition, and autonomic responses. The limbic system, however, has extensive direct interconnections with all brain regions, and the extent to which the limbic system functions as a network itself remains to be determined. Perhaps the limbic system concept will lose its heuristic appeal as we improve our definitions of emotional states, and the roles of discrete structures and small circuits important in motivation (Kalivas, Churchill, & Romanides, 1999), fear (LeDoux, 1996), and other emotional behaviors. Alternatively, as some imaging studies suggest, we may actually confirm that emotional behaviors do not arise from the activity of single brain regions, but instead emerge from the coordinated action of many connected structures. New techniques in functional imaging and noninvasive regional brain stimulation will allow for direct testing of the limbic system construct in normal function and in psychiatric and medical disorders. Le grand lobe limbique et la scissure limbique dans la serie des mammiferes (Comparative anatomy of the cerebral cortex. Two great figures of that time, William James and Sigmund Freud, loomed large in this issue. Both were trained in medicine and psychology, but viewed themselves as psychologists; both were attracted to philosophy; and both were to receive renown as writers. It is fitting that Freud should have met William James in 1909 on his only visit to America. As he evolved psychoanalysis, he always understood that humanistic studies were vital to his thinking, and he criticized the lack of such studies in the medical curriculum, especially for the training of someone who was to become a psychoanalyst. The specific writers who influenced him were many, including Shakespeare, whose works he had read in English as a youth; Goethe, whom he was fond of quoting; and Dostoyevski, whose psychological acumen he so admired. Humans are linguistic beasts, and Freud recognized that any comprehensive theory of human behavior must come to grips with this simple fact. Freud used the analysis of language as the foundation on which he erected his theoretical edifice. Concepts with linguistic referents inform his analysis of dreamwork, including censorship, condensation, displacement, secondary revision, and symbolization. Similarly, he elaborated how wit and joking are forms of language that reveal the complex workings of the mind. Moreover, Freud evolved a "talking cure," the technique of psychoanalytic therapy in which two people converse as a means of alleviating neurotic suffering. The concern with transformational processes provides a fundamental meeting ground for psychology and literature.
Additionally medications used for anxiety buy 25/200 mg aggrenox caps with visa, the individual may have fewer pathways available to symptoms questions generic aggrenox caps 25/200mg with mastercard compensate for the atypicalities. Reading is a complex cognitive task that combines numerous skills, including attention, memory, phonological processing, rapid naming, and so forth. Consequently, any findings related to individual chromosomal involvement in the development of dyslexia might actually pertain to language tasks in general. Despite this caveat, research has implicated chromosomes 6 and 15 in dyslexia, resulting from the action of an autosomal dominant gene with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. Although there is significant evidence to support genetic involvement in dyslexia, environmental factors also play a role. Behavioral genetics research has suggested that slightly more than 50% of the variance in reading performance is the result of differences in genetic heritability. Although research supports the involvement of genetics and the differences in the brain as being risk factors for dyslexia, these areas do not answer questions about the underlying cognitive processes that are involved in reading and that are aberrant in dyslexia. Research on dyslexia suggests that phonological processing and orthographic coding are two cognitive processes that play significant roles in reading ability and dyslexia. Phonological processing allows an individual to hear and manipulate individual sounds in spoken language. Although there are only 26 letters in the English language, there are 44 phonemes. Rather than being one unitary skill demonstrable in a single behavior, phonological processing skills are actually a group of skills, including letter-sound association, rhyming, blending, segmenting, and sound replacement. Phonological processing skills are developing in children before they enter school, and these early skills appear to predict future reading achievement. Furthermore, these skills continue to develop as the child learns to read, such that the relationship between phonological processing and reading is symbiotic. Research with dyslexic children suggests that phonological deficits may be the core deficits impeding their reading acquisition. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that these skills are influenced by genetics and the underlying brain structures in the perisylvian region. It involves the interpretation of abstract representations, specifically, series of letters that form words during the reading process. Orthographic processing is most closely related to sight word reading, in which the individual does not use decoding strategies to read words but, rather, recognizes the entire word on sight. It appears to be influenced mostly by environmental factors, such as home reading environment, rather than genetic heritability. Intervention for dyslexia typically consists of remediation and compensation strategies. When children are diagnosed with dyslexia during the early school years, the emphasis is on teaching them phonetic skills to improve their decoding ability and teaching them to recognize sight words to increase reading speed. For many children, their reading improves and they are able to experience normal developmental outcomes, such as employment and, in some cases, higher-level education. For those individuals who do not develop adequate reading ability by adolescence and adulthood, the emphasis changes to include compensatory strategies. As adults, dyslexic individuals typically have access to books on tape and other compensatory approaches. Three research findings seem germane to this conceptualization of political disaffection. First, these five components of disaffection are highly interrelated, with high levels of disaffection in one component correlating with high levels of disaffection in the other four. Second, two attitudinal dimensions appear to underlie these five components, with political powerlessness and estrangement forming a personal dimension of disaffection, while political discontentment, distrust, and hopelessness constitute a systemic dimension of disaffection. Third, in exploring the attribution of responsibility for political disaffection, one finds that individuals attribute the condition of the political system to the unintentional behavior of private citizens ("Citizens are uninformed about politics and public affairs because the government lies to them") rather than to the intentional behavior of public officials ("Politicians are unqualified for the positions they hold"). Two demographic factors have been fairly consistently found to relate to feelings of political disaffection: socioeconomic status and race. Thus, political alienation is more prevalent among the lower and working classes than among the middle and upper classes, and Blacks are more politically alienated than Whites.
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